Is It Proper to Worship Jesus?
Examining a Jehovah’s Witness Doctrine
Edmond C. Gruss and Jay Hess
Consistent with their denial of the deity of Christ, the Jehovah’s Witnesses deny
that Christ should be worshiped. Such worship is viewed as unscriptural and a form
of idolatry. What most Jehovah’s Witnesses don’t know is that for more than 60
years Watch Tower founder C. T. Russell (d. 1916) and his successor J. F.
Rutherford (d. 1942) taught the worship of Christ, a belief that would be expressed
even after Rutherford’s death. In 1944, the Watch Tower Society’s charter was
amended and Article II stated that one of the purposes of the Society was for
“public Christian worship of Almighty God and Christ Jesus.” After changing this
doctrine in 1954 by prohibiting the worship of Jesus, efforts were made to hide this
portion of the charter whenever it was cited in Watch Tower publications.
In the Bible, worship and prayer are consistently linked; consequently Witnesses
must also deny that Jesus can be addressed in prayer — contrary to what Russell
taught. Clearly, in Scripture Jesus was — and should be — worshiped, and Jesus
invited His followers to address Him in prayer — which they did. The testimony of
Jay Hess records how a once-dedicated Witness apologist concluded Jesus should
be worshiped, which resulted in his disfellowship by the Jehovah’s Witnesses. After
further investigation of the Scriptures, he concluded, “I have madeJesus my Lord
and my God.”
The title of an article in the 8 April 2000 Awake! asks, “Is It Proper to Worship
Jesus?” In keeping with the Jehovah’s Witnesses’ denial of the deity of Christ, the
expected answer is given: “Yes, reverent adoration should be expressed only to
God. To render worship to anyone or anything else would be a form of idolatry,
which is condemned in both the Hebrew and Greek Scriptures. — Exodus 20:4, 5;
Galatians 5: 19, 20.”1 The article concludes, "Accordingly, true Christians do well
to direct their worship only to Jehovah God, the Almighty” (emphasis added)..2
The book Knowledge That Leads to Everlasting Life (1995) warns the reader:
Unless we are careful, we may do something unacceptable to God. For
example, the apostle John fell at the feet of an angel “to worship him.” But
the angel warned: “Be careful! Do not do that! All I am is a fellow slave of
you and your brothers who have the work of witnessing to Jesus. Worship
God.” (Revelation 19: 10) Do you therefore see the need to make sure that
your worship is not contaminated by any kind of idolatry? — 1 Corinthians
10:14. (emphasis added)3
In response to a reader’s question about the disciples’ worship of Jesus in Matthew
28:9, the 1 November 1964Watchtower states, “Trinitarians who believe that
Jesus is God, or at least the second person of the triune God, do not like to have
Jehovah’s witnesses say that it is unscriptural for worshipers of the living and true
God to render worship to the Son of God, Jesus Christ” (emphasis added).4 How
might one respond to these statements?
IT IS PROPER TO WORSHIP JESUS CHRIST?
It would come as a surprise to most Jehovah’s Witnesses that the statements and
claims cited above have not always characterized the movement and its
publications. In fact, the Watch Tower Society leadership encouraged the worship
of Jesus Christ for much of its history. In his article, “The Name of Jesus,”in the
November 1879 Zion’s Watch Tower, Watch Tower founder C. T. Russell’s
associate J. H. Paton wrote of Jesus, “His position is contrasted with that of men
and angels, as he is Lord of both, having ‘all power in heaven and earth.’ Hence it is
said, ‘Let all the angels of God worship Him’; [that must include Michael, the chief
angel, hence Michael is not the Son of God]...” (brackets in original).5 Paton’s
position on Michael would later be rejected by Pastor Russell, and the Witnesses
still identify Jesus Christ as Michael the archangel.6
In “A Living Christ,” published in the March 1880 Zion’s Watch Tower, we read:
He still is Lord, and as such we worship Him.... To worship a false Christ would
indeed be sin, but to worship Christ in any form cannot be wrong, for when He
bringeth the first Begotten in to the world, He sayeth, “Let all the angels of God
worship Him.... (Heb. 1:6, 10, 12.)” (emphases added).7
In the October 1880 Zion’s Watch Tower article, “Why Did Christ Come in the
Flesh?” J. H. Paton wrote, “He was the object of unreproved worship even when a
babe....Even the angels delighted to do Him honor....‘And let all the angels of God
worship Him.’ Heb. 1:6. He never reproved any one for acts of worship offered to
Himself....” (emphases added).8
Speaking on prayer to a group of his followers, Russell said the prayers of the
mature Christian “are usually thank offerings and communion seasons — telling the
Lord (the Father or the Son, either or both, for the Father, as well as the Son,
loves us; — John 16:27 — and we have promise of communion with both; — John
14:23 — both are to be worshiped and loved equally, for ‘all men should honor the
son even as they honor the Father;’ John 5:23....” (first emphasis added; second
In the 15 July 1898 Zion’s Watch Tower, under “Interesting Queries,”we read,
“Question. The fact that our Lord received worship is claimed by some to be
an evidence that while on earth he was God the Father disguised in a body
of flesh and not really a man. Was he really worshiped, or is the translation
faulty? Answer. Yes, we believe our Lord Jesus while on earth was really
worshiped, and properly so.” While denying His deity, the answer continues,
“It was proper for our Lord to receive worship in view of his having been the
only begotten of the Father, and his agent in the creation of all things,
including man” (emphasis added).10
In the article “Gifts to Our King” (addressing Matt. 2:1–12), the 1 January 1906
Zion’s Watch Tower explained:
In one respect many of Christendom could learn numerous important lessons from
these wise Gentiles....They worshiped him in three senses of the word: (1) They
fell before him, prostrated themselves, thus physically expressing their reverence.
(2) They worshiped him in their hearts and with the tongue gave expression to
their rejoicing and confidence. (3) They opened their treasure-box and presented to
him three gifts appropriate to royalty: the myrrh representing submission, frankincense
representing praise, gold representing obedience” (emphasis added).11
Watch Tower founder and president Charles T. Russell died on 31 October 1916,
and on 6 January 1917, Joseph F. Rutherford succeeded him. What did the books
of Russell’s prolific successor state concerning worship of Jesus Christ? Would it be
denied and identified as a “form of idolatry”? These books cover two decades
(1921–1940). (Emphasis has been added to quotes from the following Rutherford
The Harp of God: Rutherford quoted Matthew 28:1–10. Verse 9 reads (without
comment or correction): “And they came and held him by the feet, and worshiped
Deliverance: “Crucifixes were erected, and the worship of the people turned to
these rather than to let them intelligently worship the Lord Jehovah and the Lord
Light, vol. 2: “His power and authority extend throughout the universe, and, he
being Jehovah’s right arm, the great Jehovah commands: ‘Let all the angels of God
worship him.’ — Heb. 1:6.”14
“All the restored human race will discern the blessedness of God, and will delight to
worship him and the great King. Christ Jesus is the ‘King of Kings’ (Rev. 1:5).”15
“Because of his faithfulness God raised him up out of death and then announced
that all the angels of heaven should worship him and that every knee to him shall
bow and every tongue shall confess that he is Jehovah’s anointed one and the high
officer of the Most High. — Phil. 2:11.”16
Vindication, vol. 3: During the Millennium, “the princes will lead the people in their
worship of Jehovah and of Christ.”17
Preparation: In his commentary on Zechariah, Rutherford wrote that after
Armageddon, Christ, as the great High Priest and King of Jehovah, will convert the
world in truth and in fact. All who live must worship and serve Jehovah and Christ
Jesus, and at his name every knee shall bow, and every tongue shall confess that
he is the Christ, to the glory of God. (Phil. 2: 10,11)...The kingdom and the
dominion and the greatness thereof under the whole heaven shall be given to
Jehovah’s King-Priest, and all must worship and obey him.18 “ALL THE FAMILIES OF
THE EARTH” who obey will joyfully come unto Jerusalem and worship Christ and
Jehovah of hosts.”19
Jehovah: “The people are here warned of a wicked conspiracy formed by Satan ...
: To put America into the League of Nations, control the money and all other
property, rule the people by the hand of their one-man dictator, destroy the
freedom of speech and press, and stop the true worship of God and Christ. ”22
Riches: “Those honest-hearted ones who have left Satan’s organization are now
on the Lord’s side, and they want that fact to be known and they make it known,
and they worship the only true God, Jehovah, and his King.”21
“Whether any creature gets life in heaven or on earth, he must acknowledge and
worship Jehovah as the only true and almighty God, and Christ Jesus his King and
Chief Executive Officer....”22
Salvation: “The people of all nations who obtain salvation must come to the house
of the Lord to worship there; that is to say, they must believe on and worship
Jehovah God and the Lord Jesus Christ, his chief instrument (Philippians 2:10,
Religion: Religious leaders “oppose freedom of assembly and freedom of speech
and freedom of worship and urge their fanatical and benighted dupes to indulge in
violence against those who peaceably assemble for the true worship of God and
The 15 August 1941 Watchtower explained with reference to Jesus’ obedience
unto death, “For this reason God has highly exalted him and given him a name
above every name, and commands that all creatures in heaven and earth shall
worship the Son as he worships the Father. — Phil. 2:5–11” (emphasis added).25
The Jehovah’s Witnesses did not question the doctrines in Rutherford writings
because they believed that “those books do not contain the opinion of any
man.”26 About six months after his death, it was claimed, “During the past twenty
years he [God] has equipped them with his revealed Word in print, in the form of
books, booklets, magazines, tracts and leaflets.…”27
At that point in time, the worship of Jesus Christ had been promoted in Watch
Tower publications by founder C. T. Russell and immediate successor J. F.
Rutherford for over 60 years. Would this teaching, rejected and characterized
by more recent Jehovah’s Witness writers as “a form of idolatry” and as
“unscriptural,” continue in the Society after their passing?
THE WATCH TOWER CHARTER AMENDED
Resolutions amending Articles 2, 3, 5, 7, 8, and 10 of the original 1884 Watch
Tower charter were adopted on 2 October 1944, in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. This
action is a significant event in the history of the movement.28
Article II of the amended charter is pertinent to the subject of the worship of Jesus
Christ. The original charter was printed in the 1 November 1917 Watch Tower (see
Article II as amended is reproduced in its entirety in the 1945 Yearbook of
Jehovah’s Witnesses. It states among the “purposes of the...Society are...for
public Christian worship of Almighty God and Christ Jesus; to arrange for and hold
local and world-wide assemblies for such worship...” (emphasis added; see figure
The wording, “worship of Almighty God and Christ Jesus,” is exactly what had been
stated in Watch Tower Society publications up to this time. While denying the deity
of Christ, the 15 October 1945 Watchtower, in agreement with the amended
Now, at Christ’s coming to reign as king in Jehovah’s capital organization
Zion, to bring in a righteous new world, Jehovah makes him infinitely higher
then the godly angels or messengers and accordingly commands them to
worship him.... Since Jehovah God now reigns as king by means of his
capital organization Zion, then whosoever would worship Him must also
worship and bow down to Jehovah’s Chief One in that capital organization,
namely Christ Jesus, his Co-regent on the throne of The Theocracy (emphases
The 1 September 1948 Watchtower affirmed: “When he returned to the spirit
realms from which he descended to earth, Jesus Christ was again seen in the midst
of God’s holy messengers or angels in heaven. This paved the way for fulfilling the
scripture: ‘And when he again bringeth in his firstborn into the world he saith, And
let all the angels of God worship him’ (Heb. 1:6, Am. Stan. Vers.).”32
“Make Sure of All Things,” published in 1953, was the last Witness book that
affirmed the worship of Christ as stated in the charter: “Christ to Be Worshiped as a
Glorious Spirit.” This heading was retained in the 1957 revisionof the book.33
THE WATCHTOWER REVERSES ITS POSITION
While there may have been an earlier hint, the new anti-worship doctrine was first
clearly stated in the 1 January 1954 Watchtower, where, in contradiction to what
was just published in “Make Sure of All Things,” it concludes, “No distinct worship is
to be rendered to Jesus Christ now glorified in heaven. Our worship is to go to
Yet, the next year, the Society’s “application for an amended certificate of
authority” to operate in Illinois (dated 7 February 1956) included “Exhibit A,” which
reproduces almost all of Article II, including the statement of purpose: “for public
Christian worship of Almighty God and Christ Jesus...”(emphasis added).35
How would this doctrinal contradiction in the amended charter, which speaks of the
“worship of Almighty God and Christ Jesus,” be hidden in Watch Tower
publications? It is quoted in the 1 April 1953 Watchtower with a number of lines
omitted before this statement, and then the section is picked up again after the
words “such worship” (see figure 3).36
The book Qualified to Be Ministers (1955) quotes a portion of article II and skips
over the section in question after the ellipsis it quotes the words immediately
following: “…to arrange for and hold local and worldwide assemblies for such
worship” (see figure 4).37 The reader is left wondering what “such worship” means.
When Article II is reproduced in the 1969 Yearbook and the 15 December 1971
Watchtower, there are again obvious attempts to hide what the charter states. The
Yearbook quotes the Article in its entirety, but substitutes ellipsis for “and Christ
Jesus” (see figure 5).38 The Watchtower also quotes the entire Article but at this
point says, “…for public Christian worship of Almighty God [through] Christ Jesus...”
(emphasis added; see figure 6),39 which changes the meaning of the charter. The
official Watch Tower history book, Jehovah’s Witnesses — Proclaimers of God’s
Kingdom, discusses the amending of the charter in 1944, but none of the changes
PRAYER AND WORSHIP
What is the connection between prayer and worship? May prayers be addressed to
The Witnesses now explain, “Prayer is part of our worship and for this reason
should be directed only to the Creator, Jehovah (Matt. 4:10).”41 “Though some
claim that prayer may properly be addressed to others, such as to God’s Son, the
evidence is emphatically to the contrary” (emphasis added).42
As with worship, prayer addressed to Jesus was not always denied, as these
excerpts by, or concerning, Watch Tower founder C. T. Russell show (emphasis
has been added†):
It is undoubtedly proper enough for us to address petitions to our Redeemer
and Advocate, who loved us and gave himself for us....Although we are
nowhere instructed to make petitions to him, it evidently could not be
improper so to do; for such a course is nowhere prohibited, and the disciples
worshiped him. — Matt. 28: 9, 17. 43
[Pastor Russell] sought to show that it is a mistake to suppose that the Lord Jesus may
not be addressed in prayer, as well as the heavenly Father...44 The general sentiment of
Scripture seems to imply that there will be nothing wrong in our addressing a
petition to our Lord Jesus direct if any so desire at any time....The body of Christ,
should be permitted to address him, and thus we read in our lesson that the
apostles worshiped the ascended Jesus — they recognized his greatness and
dignity and honor as the Messiah....The Lord’s own words are appropriate here: he
says, “That all men should honor the Son even as they honor the Father — John
5:23.”45 I have found myself in prayer addressing the Lord Jesus himself, for I
find nothing in the Scriptures to contradict that, for they say to honor the Son as
we honor the Father. 46
The Meaning of John 5:23
Three New Testament scholars comment on the verse Russell cites. Robert L.
Reymond writes, “With these words Jesus claimed the right to demand, equally
with the Father, the honor (that is, the devotion and worship) of men!”47
Craig S. Keener explains, “God sometimes gave others honor as his
representatives (Ps 2:11–12), but no one was ever to be honored to the same
degree as God (Is 42:8; 48:11; cf. Ex 20:5). Jesus’ hearers could easily construe
Jesus’ statement here as a claim to deity. 48 Finally, A. T. Robertson writes, “Jesus
claims here the right to worship from men that the Father has. Dishonoring Jesus is
dishonoring the Father who sent him (8:49; 12:26; 15:23; 1 John 2:23). See
also Luke 10:16. There is small comfort here for those who praise Jesus as
teacher and yet deny his claims to worship.”49
Prayer to Jesus
The earlier Watch Tower position regarding prayer to Jesus was based on clear
Scriptural evidence. As translated in the Witnesses’ New World Translation (1984
ed.), John 14:13–14 reads, “Also, whatever it is that YOU ask in my name, I will
do this, in order that the Father may be glorified in connection with the Son. If YOU
ask [footnote: “ask me”] anything in my name, I will do it.” (see figure 7). The
addition of “me” in verse 14 “has the support of the earliest MSS (including p66);
all of the translations since the NEB (1961) followed this reading.”50
Steven T. Byington’s The Bible in Living English (1972), published by the Watch
Tower Society, also reads, “If you ask me anything in my name I will do it.”
In these two verses, Jesus not only states that He would answer the prayers of His
followers but also that these couldbe addressed to Him. They accepted and
exercised His invitation (see Acts 1:21–24 [cf. 1:2, 21]; 7:59–60; 1 Cor. 1:2; 2
JESUS WORSHIPED ACCORDING TO SCRIPTURE
Theological bias is very evident in the Witnesses’ New World Translation when the
Greek word proskuneo is translated. As Ron Rhodes points out: “When used in
reference to Jehovah, the New World Translation correctly translates the word as
‘worship’ (22 times). But when proskuneo is used of Christ, it is translated
‘obeisance,’ ‘reverence,’ and ‘homage.’ The fact is, Christ was worshiped as God
(proskuneo) many times according to the Gospel accounts — and He always
accepted such worship as appropriate.”51 The Watch Tower Society itself once
For many years, Hebrews 1:6 was quoted in Watch Tower publications: “And let all
the angels of God worship him,” and proskuneo was translated as “worship” in the
first edition of the New World Translation (1950) and subsequent editions (1953,
1960, 1961, 1970): “And let all God’s angels worship him.” In 1971, it was
changed: “And let all God’s angels do obeisance to him.”
In Revelation 5:13–14, the entire creation joins in the chorus of worship and praise
of both God and the Lamb: “‘To the One sitting on the throne and to the Lamb be
the blessing and the honor and the glory and the might forever and ever.’ And the
four living creatures went on saying: ‘Amen!’ and the elders fell down and
THE TESTIMONY OF JAY HESS
After 23 years as a dedicated Jehovah’s Witness, this article’s coauthor, Jay Hess,
was disfellowshiped. He had been an active Witness apologist: debating critics,
researching, and publishing answers to “opposers” of the movement.’
Two subjects that interested him the most were the charge that the Witnesses
were false prophets and the doctrine of the Trinity. Concerning the latter he
I tried to address every Trinitarian argument. One that captured my interest was
whether Jesus was to be worshiped.... Through many hours of research I came up
with an explanation that said Jesus could be worshiped and yet he was not God.
How good I felt to have an answer that, I thought, defended the Society’s position!
Oddly enough, this is what eventually led to my being ejected from the Witnesses.52
During the week of 19 March 1990, in one of the Theocratic School meetings, it
was “announced in all congregations that Jesus was not to be worshiped.” 53 Soon
after, the Society started to investigate me and my friend [with whom he had
shared his view] about our claims that Jesus should be worshiped. A religious court
(“special committee”) was set up and we were charged with “causing divisions” by
telling JWs that we worshiped Jesus. We were both found guilty. The court
punished my friend by announcing to the congregation that he was found guilty but
would be allowed to stay in the organization. I appealed their decision.... I was
found guilty again and disfellowshipped on February 3, 1992. 54
Hess concludes, “Continuing my Bible research has led to my understanding of the
errors of the Watchtower teachings. Although I lost my family and my former
culture, Jesus has opened my eyes and allowed me to see the One I was seeking
to worship (John 9).”55 In a letter, Hess expresses his present faith: “I have made
Jesus my Lord and my God (John 20:28).”56
Ironically, Jay Hess was disfellowshiped for believing a doctrine that had been
taught by Russell and Rutherford, affirmed in subsequent Watch Tower publications,
and included in the Watch Tower charter. Moreover, if Christ is God, not to worship
Him is scripturally wrong. Church historian Philip Schaff states the historic position
of the church: “Finally Christ cannot be a proper object of worship, as he is
represented in Scripture and has always been regarded in the Church, without being
strictly divine. To worship a creature is idolatry.”57
Finally, since the worship of Christ Jesus was not rejected as unscriptural and as a
form of idolatry until 1954, how can it be claimed that 1919 saw the “restoration
of pure worship” in the movement?58 Furthermore, while still involved in such
“idolatry,” why would Jehovah choose such an organization as his “sole visible
channel, through whom alone spiritual instruction was to come”?59
1 Awake! 8 April 2000, 26
2 Ibid., 27.
3 Knowledge That Leads to Everlasting Life (Brooklyn: Watch Tower, 1995), 49.
4 “Questions from Readers,” The Watchtower, 1 November 1964, 671.
5 Watch Tower Reprints, November 1879, 48.
6 C. T. Russell, “The Arch-Angel,” Zion’s Watch Tower, June 1883, 490. “Scriptural
evidence indicates that the name Michael applied to God’s Son before he left
heaven to become Jesus Christ and also after his return.” (Insight on the Scriptures,
vol. 2 [Brooklyn: Watch Tower, 1988], 393.) For a rebuttal, see Ron Rhodes,
Reasoning from the Scriptures with the Jehovah’s Witnesses (Eugene, OR: Harvest
House, 1993), chap. 7.
7 Watch Tower Reprints, March 1880, 82–83.
8 Watch Tower Reprints, October 1880, 144.
9 “Our Chicago Convention,” Watch Tower Reprints, 1 and 15 September 1893, 1580–81.
10 Watch Tower Reprints, 15 July 1898, 2337.
11 Watch Tower Reprints, 1 January 1906, 3703.
12 The Harp of God (Brooklyn: Watch Tower, 1921), 161; 1928 ed., 163.
13 Deliverance (Brooklyn: Watch Tower, 1926), 204; later eds., 215.
14 Light, vol. 2 (Brooklyn: Watch Tower, 1930), 166.
15 Ibid., 251.
16 Ibid., 321.
17 Vindication, vol. 3 (Brooklyn: Watch Tower, 1932), 295.
18 Preparation(Brooklyn: Watch Tower, 1933), 328–29.
19 Ibid., 331.
20 Jehovah (Brooklyn: Watch Tower, 1934), 24.
21 Riches (Brooklyn: Watch Tower, 1936), 325.
22 Ibid., 332–33.
23 Salvation (Brooklyn: Watch Tower, 1939), 151.
24 Religion (Brooklyn: Watch Tower, 1940), 302.
25 “The Way to Life,” The Watchtower, 15 August 1941, 252.
26 Riches, 353–54.
27 The Watchtower, 1 July 1942, 203.
28 1975 Yearbook of Jehovah’s Witnesses (Brooklyn: Watch Tower, 1974), 246–47.
29 “The History and Operations of Our Society,” Watch Tower Reprints, 1 November 1917, 6162.
30 1945 Yearbook of Jehovah’s Witnesses (Brooklyn: Watch Tower, 1944), 32. For $6.00 (money order) a copy of the amended Charter is available from: Office of Recorder of Deeds, 101 County Office Building, 542 Forbes Ave., Pittsburgh, PA 15219-2947. Allegheny County Pennsylvania Charter Book, vol. 70, 171–76 (recorded 27 February 1945).
31 “Jehovah Hath Become King!” The Watchtower, 15 October 1945, 313.
32 “A Healthful Means of Gain,” The Watchtower, 1 September 1948, 260.
33 “Make Sure of All Things” (Brooklyn: Watch Tower, 1953), 85.
34 “Questions from Readers,” The Watchtower, 1 January 1954, 31.
35 Allegheny County Pennsylvania Charter Book, vol. 75, 678–79 (recorded 28 February 1956). The Recorder of Deeds indicates that this was the last amendment to the charter (note postmarked 26 July 2000).
36 “Do Not Loiter at Your Business,” The Watchtower, 1 April 1953, 216.
37 Qualified to Be Ministers (Brooklyn: Watch Tower, 1955), 304.
38 1969 Yearbook of Jehovah’s Witnesses (Brooklyn: Watch Tower, 1968), 50.
39 “A Governing Body as Different from a Legal Corporation,” Watchtower, 15 December 1971, 760.
40 Jehovah’s Witnesses — Proclaimers of God’s Kingdom (Brooklyn: Watch Tower, 1993), 229.
41 The Truth That Leads to Eternal Life (Brooklyn: Watch Tower, 1968), 152.
42 “Prayer,” Insight on the Scriptures, vol. 2, 667.
43 “To Whom Should We Pray?” Watch Tower Reprints, 15 May 1892, 1410.
44 “Our Chicago Convention,” Watch Tower Reprints, 1 and 15 September 1893, 1580.
45 “If I Go Away I Will Come Again,” Watch Tower Reprints, 15 December 1906, 3911.
46 C. T. Russell, quoted in L. W. Jones, ed., What Pastor Russell Said (Chicago: Chicago Bible Students, 1917), 540–41.
47 Robert L. Reymond, Jesus, Divine Messiah (Phillipsburg, NJ: Presbyterian and Reformed, 1990), 89.
48 Craig S. Keener, The IVP Bible Background Commentary: New Testament (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1993), 277.
49 A. T. Robertson, Word Pictures in the New Testament, vol. 5 (Nashville: Broadman, 1932), 86.
50 Philip Wesley Comfort, Early Manuscripts and Modern Translations of the New Testament (Grand Rapids: Baker, 1990), 123.
51 Rhodes, 168.
52 Jay Hess, “In and Out of the Watchtower,” Free Minds Journal, January–February 1995, 10.
54 Ibid., 11.
56 Bethel Ministries Newsletter, May–June 1992, 5.
57 Philip Schaff, History of the Christian Church, 5th ed., vol. 3 (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1971), 662.
58 “Keeping Up with the Truth,” The Watchtower, 1 March 1956, 147.
59 “Finding Freedom with Jehovah’s Visible Organization,” The Watchtower, 1 October 1967, 590.
Dr. Edmund Charles Gruss is Professor Emeritus at The Master’s College. He was a Jehovah’s
Witness from the age of seven to seventeen. He subsequently became a follower of Jesus Christ.
Dr. Gruss is an expert on cults and the occult and has written the following books: What About the
Ouija Board (1973); We Left Jehovah’s Witnesses: Personal Testimonies (1974); The Ouija Board
Doorway to the Occult (1975, 1994); Apostles of Denial: An Examination and Expose of the History,
Doctrines, and Claims of the Jehovah