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The Trial of Jeanne D’Arc


Continue....Part Seven




Attestations by the notaries appointed in this trial


"I, Guillaume Colles, otherwise called Boisguillaume, priest of the diocese of Rouen, by apostolic authority sworn notary in the archiepiscopal court of Rouen and in this trial, I attest that the collation of this present trial has been duly made with the original minute of III leaves, and therefore I have signed this present copy of the proceedings with my seal at the bottom


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of each leaf: In witness whereof I have signed with my own hand, followed by the two other notaries."


Boisguillaume.


"And I, Guillaume Manchon, priest of the diocese of Rouen, apostolic notary by imperial and pontifical authority, sworn notary of the archiepiscopal court of Rouen, and, with others, in this process, I attest that I was present with the other notaries in the collation of the said trial and that the collation was duly made with the original register of the proceedings. Therefore with the other notaries I have subscribed the present trial with my own hand and have affixed thereto my sign manual, as I was required."


G. Manchon.


"And I, Nicolas Taquel, priest of the diocese of Rouen, notary public by apostolic authority, sworn notary of the archiepiscopal court of Rouen and called to a part of this said process, I attest that with the other notaries I saw and heard the collation of this trial with the original register of the proceedings and that the collation has been duly made. Therefore with the other notaries I have subscribed the present trial with my own hand and have affixed thereto my sign manual, as I was required."


N. Taquel


[Here are the seals of the Bishop of Beauvais and of the Inquisitor.]


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SUBSEQUENT DOCUMENTS I Information given after the execution on many things said by her at her end and in articulo mortis. (1)


On Thursday, June 7th, 1431, we the said judges received ex officio information upon certain words spoken by the late Jeanne before many trustworthy persons, whilst she was still in prison and before she was brought to judgment.


And first the venerable and circumspect master Nicolas de Venderès, licentiate in canon law, archdeacon of Eu and canon of the church of Rouen, aged 52 or thereabouts, a witness produced, sworn, received and examined this day, declared upon oath that on Wednesday the last day of May, on the Eve of Corpus Christi last, the said Jeanne, being still in the prison where she was detained in the castle of Rouen, said that considering that the voices which came to her had promised her she should be delivered from prison, and she saw the contrary, she realized and knew that she had been and was deceived by them.


This Jeanne said and confessed that she had seen with her


(1) It is difficult to find anything more logically introduced than this conclusion to the Trial Record. Is it necessary to say that all this is as far as possible from the truth? That it is propaganda after execution? Here, more than in the Trial Record, the judges present their apologia. It is not signed by the notaries.


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own eyes and heard with her own cars the voices and apparitions mentioned in this case: at this there were present we, the said judges, master Pierre Maurice, Thomas de Courcelles, Nicolas Loiseleur, brother Martin Ladvenu, master Jacques Le Camus, and several others.


Brother Martin Ladvenu, priest of the order of Preaching brothers, aged about 33, witness produced, received, sworn and examined, said and declared on oath that this Jeanne on the morning of the day an which sentence was delivered against her, said and confessed before she was brought to judgment, in the presence of masters Pierre Maurice, Nicolas Loiseleur, and the said Dominican brother Toutmouillé, that she knew and recognized that she had been deceived by the voices and apparitions which came to her; for these voices promised her, Jeanne, that she should be delivered and set free from prison, and she clearly perceived the contrary.


Asked who induced her to say this, he said that he himself, master Pierre Maurice and master Nicolas Loiseleur exhorted her for the salvation of her soul, and they asked her if it were true that she had received these voices and apparitions. She answered that it was, and continued to say so up to the end: yet she did not precisely describe, at least as far as he understood, in what form they came to her, except as far as he could remember, that they came in great multitude and in the least dimension. Moreover, he then heard Jeanne say and confess that because the clergy held and believed that any spirits which might come to her came and proceeded from evil spirits, she also held and believed in this matter as the clergy did, and would no longer put faith in these spirits. And in his opinion Jeanne was then of sound mind.


He said that on the same day he heard Jeanne say and confess that although in her confessions and answers she had boasted that an angel from God had brought the crown to him she


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called her king, that she had accompanied the angel when he brought the crown, and many other things reported at greater length in the trial, nevertheless uncoerced and of her own free will she saw and confessed that in spite of all she had said and boasted on this subject, there was no angel who brought the crown; that she, Jeanne, was the angel who had told and promised her king that she would have him crowned at Reims if she were set to work; that there has been no other crown sent from God, whatever she had said and affirmed in the course of her trial on the subject of the crown and sign given to him she called her king.


The venerable and discreet master Pierre Maurice, professor of sacred theology, canon of Rouen, aged about 38 years, witness produced, received, sworn and examined on this day, said and deposed that he visited her in the morning of the day when the sentence was delivered against this Jeanne, whilst she was still in prison, to exhort her to save her soul: and whilst he was exhorting her and asking her about the angel who, according to her had brought the crown to him she called her king, he heard her answer that she herself was this angel.


Asked about the crown she promised him, and the host of angels who accompanied her, she answered that it was true that they appeared to her in the likeness of certain very minute things.


And finally when he had asked her if this apparition were real, she answered that it was, and whether good or evil spirits, they really had appeared to her, saying in French, "Soint bons, soint mauvais esperits, ilz me sont apparus." She said also that she had heard her voices mostly at the hour of Compline, when the bells were rung; and also in the morning when the bells were rung. He told her it appeared that they were evil spirits who had promised her deliverance and that she had been deceived, whereupon the said Jeanne answered that this


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was true, she had been deceived. He heard her say that she referred to the Church to decide whether they were good or evil spirits, and in his opinion she was, when she said that, sound of mind and understanding.


Brother Jean Toutmouillé, priest of the order of Preaching brothers, about 34 years of age, witness produced, received, sworn, and examined on Thursday, said and deposed that on the morning of the day when the sentence was delivered against this Jeanne, to wit Wednesday, the Eve of the Feast of Corpus Christi, he, in the company of brother Martin Ladvenu of the same order, visited this Jeanne to exhort her to save her soul, and heard her say to Pierre Maurice who had preceded him there, that what she had said and confessed touching the crown was pure fiction, and she herself was the angel: this the said master Pierre took down in Latin. Then she was questioned about the voices which came to her, and the apparitions. She answered that she really had heard voices, chiefly when the bells were being rung at Compline or Matins; although master Pierre told her that sometimes when men hear bells they imagine they hear and catch certain words.


The said Jeanne said and confessed that she had had apparitions come to her, sometimes in a great multitude, sometimes in a small number, or in minute things: she did not otherwise describe their form and figure.


He said that on the same day, after our arrival in the room where she was detained, we the said bishop said to Jeanne in French, before the vicar of the lord Inquisitor, "Now, Jeanne, you have always told us that your voices promised you you would be delivered; you now see how they have deceived you. Tell us the truth now." Then Jeanne answered us, "Truly I see they have indeed deceived me." He did not hear her say anything more, except that at first, before we the judges had


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arrived in her prison, Jeanne was asked whether she believed that the said voices and apparitions proceeded from good or evil spirits: and she replied, "I do not know. I refer me to my Mother the Church," or "to you who are of the Church." In his opinion Jeanne was then of sound mind, and he heard Jeanne herself confess that she was of sound mind.


Jacques Le Camus, priest, canon of Reims, aged about 53 years, witness produced, sworn and examined on this day, said and deposed under oath that in the morning of Wednesday, the Eve of Corpus Christi last, he accompanied us the said bishop to the room where Jeanne was detained in the castle of Rouen, and heard this Jeanne publicly confess in a voice audible to all those present that she Jeanne had seen the apparitions come to her and had heard their voices, promising that she should be delivered; and since she recognized that they had deceived her she believed they were -not good voices or good things. A little while later she confessed her sins to brother Martin of the order of Preaching brothers, and after receiving the sacrament of confession and penance, when the said brother was about to administer the sacrament of the Eucharist to her, and held the consecrated host in his hands, he asked her, "Do you believe this is the body of Christ?" And the said Jeanne answered, "Yes, and He alone can deliver me. I ask for it to be administered to me." Then the same brother said to her, "Do you still believe in these voices?" She answered, "I believe in God alone, and will no longer put faith in these voices, because they have deceived me."


Master Thomas de Courcelles, master of arts and bachelor of theology, aged about 30 years, witness produced, received, sworn and examined on this day, said and deposed under oath that on Wednesday, the Eve of Corpus Christi, he, being in our presence in the room where the said Jeanne was detained in the castle of Rouen, heard and understood us the said bishop to ask


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Jeanne if her voices had told her she would be delivered. And she answered that her voices had told her she would be delivered, and she should keep a good countenance. She added, he thought, sententiously, "I see indeed that I have been deceived." And then we the said bishop told Jeanne she could then see that these voices were not good spirits, and did not come from God, for if they did, they would never have uttered false or lying things.


Master Nicolas Loiseleur, master of arts, canon of the churches of Rouen and Chartres, aged about 40 years, witness produced, received, sworn, and examined on this day, said and deposed under oath that on the morning of Wednesday, the Eve of Corpus Christi last, he went with the venerable master Pierre Maurice, professor of sacred theology, to the prison where Jeanne, commonly known as The Maid, was confined, to exhort and admonish her for her salvation. Required to speak the truth concerning the angel who, according to her statements in the trial, had brought to him she called her king a most precious crown of very fine gold, and urged not to hide the truth inasmuch as she had nothing more to do but consider the salvation of her soul, the witness heard her say that it was she, Jeanne, who had announced to her king the crown mentioned in the trial, that she was the angel, and there had been no other angel but herself.


And then she was asked if she had really sent a crown to him she called her king. She replied that there was nothing beyond the promise of coronation which she herself made to him, assuring him he would be crowned.


Master Nicolas Loiseleur said also that often, before master Pierre, the two Preaching brothers, ourselves, and many others, he heard Jeanne say that she really had received revelations and apparitions of spirits; that she had been deceived in these revelations, which she well recognized and perceived because


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although they had promised her deliverance from prison, she saw only the contrary; upon whether these spirits were good or evil she referred to the clergy, but she put and would put no more faith in them.


He said that he exhorted her to destroy the error she had sown among the people, to confess publicly that she had deceived herself and the people by putting faith in such revelations and exhorting the people to believe in them; he exhorted her humbly to ask pardon for this. Jeanne answered that she would willingly do so, but she did not imagine that she would remember when the proper time came, that is when she was in judgment before the people; and she asked her confessor to remind her of it and of other things tending to her salvation. From this and from many other signs he thought that Jeanne was of sound mind, for she showed great signs of contrition and penitence for the crimes she had committed. He heard her, in prison before many witnesses and in public afterwards, ask with great contrition of heart pardon of the English and Burgundians for having caused them to be slain, put to flight and, as she confessed, sorely afflicted.


II


Here follows the tenor of the letters which our lord the King addressed to the emperor, to the kings, dukes and other princes of all Christendom


"Your imperial highness, most serene king and our very dear brother, is famous for the devout affection and zeal which he exercises to the honor of the Catholic faith and the glory of Christ's name: your mighty efforts and strenuous labors are assiduously directed towards the protection of the faithful people and the overthrow of the malice of heretics, and your spirits exult with great joy whenever you learn that the holy faith has been exalted in your lands and the pestilence of error


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oppressed. Wherefore we are moved to write to your serene highness upon the just punishment which for her faults a certain lying prophetess who not long ago appeared in our kingdom of France recently suffered.


"A certain woman whom the vulgar called The Maid had in fact arisen, who with an astonishing presumption, and contrary to natural decency, had adopted man's dress, assumed military arms, dared to take part in the massacre of men in bloody encounters and appeared in divers battles. Her presumption grew until she boasted that she was sent from God to lead their martial struggles, and that St. Michael, St. Gabriel, a host of other angels, with St. Catherine and St. Margaret, appeared visibly to her. So for almost a whole year she gradually seduced the people until the greater part turned away from the truth, put their trust in fables about the accomplishments of this superstitious woman which common report spread through almost the whole world. At last, taking compassion on His people whom He perceived to be stirred too easily by these dangerous and novel credulities, before receiving any proof that she was inspired by God, the divine mercy delivered this woman into our hands and power. Although she had inflicted many defeats upon our men and had brought great harm to our kingdoms, and it would therefore have been permissible for us to submit her forthwith to grave punishments, nevertheless not for one moment did we design to avenge our injury in that way or commit her to the secular authority for punishment. We were summoned by the bishop of the diocese in which she was captured to surrender her for judgment to the ecclesiastical jurisdiction, for she was commonly accused of grave and scandalous crimes hostile to the orthodox faith and the Christian religion. We therefore, as befits a Christian king reverencing the ecclesiastical authority with filial affection, immediately delivered the said woman to the judgment of Our


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Holy Mother Church and the jurisdiction of the said bishop.


"And certainly he, with all solemnity and most honorable gravity, after securing the collaboration of the vicar of the Inquisitor of Heretical Error, conducted this famous trial for the honor of God and the salutary edification of the people. After this woman had been for many days examined by the said judges, they submitted her confessions and statements to the decision of the doctors and masters of the University of Paris and many other learned authorities, and according to their advice they declared this woman to be manifestly superstitious, idolatrous, a prophetess, a caller up of demons, blasphemous towards God and His saints, schismatic and greatly erring from the faith of Jesus Christ. Indeed, to purge this miserable sinner of her pernicious crimes and to medicine her soul in the extremity of its frailty, she was for many days repeatedly admonished by charitable exhortations to reject all her errors, to walk in the straight path of truth and to keep herself from the grave dangers which threatened her body and soul.


"But the spirit of pride took hold of her mind so that her iron heart could by no means be softened by healthful teaching and salutary counsel. On the contrary, she obstinately boasted that she had done it all at the command of God and of the saints who visibly appeared to her; and, which was still worse, that she recognized no earthly judge, would submit to none except God Himself and the blessed ones of the triumphant land, and spurned the judgment of our Holy Father the Pope, of the Council General and of , all the Church Militant. From which the said judges, seeing the hardness of her heart, summoned this woman before the people, and declared her errors to her in a public sermon, addressing final warnings to her. At last the judges' sentence of condemnation was begun; but before the reading of it was finished this


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woman altered her former way of speech and announced that she would utter better things. This her judges welcomed with joy, hoping to have redeemed her body and soul from perdition, and they lent willing ears to her speech: then she submitted herself to the authority of the Church, loudly denied and abjured her errors and pernicious crimes, and signed with her own hand the formula of this recantation and abjuration.


"As our pious Mother Church rejoices when a sinner repents, and to the fold brings back the lamb wandering in the wilderness, so she confined her in prison for her salutary penance. But the fire of her pride which then seemed stifled, renewed by the breath of devils, suddenly burst out in poisonous flames; this wretched woman returned to her errors, to her false infamies which she lately had vomited away. Finally, as the ecclesiastical sanctions decree, to avoid the infection of the other members of Christ, she was given up to the judgment of the secular power which decided that her body was to be burned. Seeing then the nearness of her latter end, this wretched woman openly acknowledged and fully confessed that the spirits which she claimed had visibly appeared to her were only evil and lying spirits, that her deliverance from prison had been falsely promised by the spirits, who she confessed had mocked and deceived her.


"Such was the issue, such her end, most serene king, which we have thought it wise to make known to you so that your royal highness may perfectly understand the thing itself, and inform others of this woman's death. For there is one thing which we esteem altogether necessary for the faithful people, that by your serene highness and other princes both ecclesiastical and secular the Catholic peoples may zealously be taught not to put their faith lightly in superstitions and erroneous frivolities, especially at a time such as we have just experienced, when we have in divers parts seen many false prophets


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and sowers of errors arise, who, armed with their impudent boldness against our Holy Mother Church, would doubtless infect the whole people of Christ if heavenly mercy and its faithful ministers did not endeavor with watchful care to repulse and punish the efforts of these evil men.


"May the Lord Jesus Christ keep your highness, most serene king, to protect his Church and the Christian religion, for many days in prosperity and the fulfillment of your desires.


"Given at Rouen, June 8th, 1431"


Here follows the tenor of the letters addressed by our lord the King to the prelates of the Church, to the dukes, counts and other nobles and to the cities of his kingdom of France


"Reverend father in God, it is fairly common report everywhere how more than two years ago the woman who called herself Jeanne the Maid, a false prophetess, did against divine law and the estate of her sex, dress in man's clothes, a thing abominable to God, and in that condition journeyed to our chief enemy, whom, with others of his party, clergy, nobles and populace, she frequently gave to understand that she was sent from God, and presumptuously boasted that she often had personal and visible communication with St. Michael and a great host of angels and saints of Paradise, as well as with St. Catherine and St. Margaret. By these falsehoods and the hope she held out of future victories, she withdrew the hearts of many men and women from the way of truth, and converted them to fables and lies. She clad herself also in arms such as are worn by knights and squires, raised a standard, and, in excessive outrage, pride and presumption, asked to be given and allowed to bear the very noble and excellent arms of France, which she in fact obtained, and wore in many conflicts and assaults, as her brothers are said to have done: they were a


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shield azure with two fleurs-de-lis or, and a sword between supporting a crown. In such condition she went to the fields and led men of arms and passage in troops and great companies to commit and exercise inhuman cruelties by shedding human blood, causing popular seditions and tumults, inciting the people to perjury and pernicious rebellions, false and superstitious beliefs, by disturbing all true peace and renewing mortal Wars, permitting herself to be worshiped and revered by many as a holy woman, and working many damnable things too long to describe, which have nevertheless been well known in many places to the great scandal of almost all Christendom. But, taking compassion on His loyal people, the divine power did not leave them in danger or suffer them to dwell in the vain, perilous and novel credulities in which they so lightly believed, and in His great mercy and clemency permitted the said woman to be captured before Compiègne and delivered into our power and jurisdiction. We were forthwith summoned by the bishop of the diocese in which she had been taken to surrender her to him, her ecclesiastical judge, as accused and defamed of the crime of treason against God. As much out of reverence for Our Holy Mother Church to whose ordinances we prefer our own acts and desires, as we ought, as for the honor and exultation of our holy faith, we delivered the said Jeanne to him to be tried, for we did not wish the men and officers of our secular justice to avenge or punish her, as we might legally have done in view of the great harm, inconvenience, horrible murders, detestable cruelties and other unnumbered ills which she had wrought against our lordship and our loyal and obedient people. This bishop, in conjunction with the vicar of the Inquisitor of Errors and Heresies, having called together a great number of solemn masters and doctors of theology and canon law, with all solemnity and due gravity, opened the proceedings against this Jeanne. After she had been


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questioned for many days by him, and by the Inquisitor, her judges, they submitted her confessions and statements to the mature consideration of the said masters and doctors, and in a general manner to all the Faculties of our very dear and beloved daughter the University of Paris, to whom the confessions and statements were sent. Following these opinions and decisions the judges found this woman superstitious, a witch, idolatrous, a caller up of demons, blasphemous towards God and His saints, schismatic and greatly erring in the faith of Jesus Christ. And to reduce and restore her to the union and communion of our Holy Mother Church, to purge her of such horrible, detestable and pernicious crimes and sins, to cure and keep her soul from the eternal pain of damnation, she was often charitably and gently admonished at great length to put behind her and reject all her errors and humbly to return to the way and narrow path, or she put herself in great danger of body and soul. But the perilous spirit of pride and outrageous presumption which ever attempts to prevent and obstruct the union and safety of loyal Christians, so controlled and held this Jeanne in its chains that no healthful teaching or counsel, no administration of gentle exhortation, could humble or soften the hardness and stubbornness of her heart. Nay, she often boasted that everything she had done was well done, by the command of God and the virgin saints who had visibly appeared to her: and what is worse, she did and would recognize on earth God alone and the saints of Paradise, and refused and rejected the judgment of our Holy Father the Pope, of the Council General, and the Church Militant and Universal.


"Now the ecclesiastical judges, seeing the persistence of her hardness and obstinacy of spirit, had her brought before the clergy and the people assembled in great multitude, and in their presence her deeds, crimes and errors were solemnly and publicly preached, set forth and declared by a notable master of


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theology, to the exaltation of our said Christian faith, the extirpation of errors, the edification and correction of the Christian people. Once more she was charitably admonished to return to the union of Holy Church, and correct her faults and errors: but she remained headstrong and stubborn. Wherefore the judges proceeded to pronounce against her the sentence, lawfully ordained for such cases. But before the sentence was altogether read she began, it appeared, to regain her courage, saying that she would return to Holy Church, which the judges and clergy willingly and joyfully heard, and favorably received, hoping by such means to redeem her body and soul from perdition and torment. Then she submitted herself to the ordinance of the Holy Church, recanted with her own lips and publicly abjured her errors and detestable crimes, signing with her own hand the formula of recantation and abjuration.


"As our Mother Church rejoices when the sinner repents, wishing to restore to the others the lamb wandering in the desert, she condemned this Jeanne to prison for her salutary penance. But hardly had the fire of her pride seemed extinguished in her, when under the breath of the Enemy it burst out into poisonous flames, and soon the wretched woman fell back into the errors and false madness which she had formerly professed and since recanted and abjured. Therefore, as the judgments and institutions of the Church ordain, to prevent the contamination of the other members of Jesus Christ, she was again publicly admonished, and for her relapse into her wonted crimes and faults was abandoned to the secular justice which forthwith condemned her to be burned. When she saw her end approach she fully recognized and acknowledged that the spirits which she said had so often appeared to her were evil and false, that the promises they had made her were untrue, and so she confessed that she had been mocked and deceived by the spirits.


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"Such was the issue of her works, such the end of this woman, with which we acquaint you by these presents, reverend father in God, so that you may be perfectly informed of this matter, and in such places of your diocese as you may think fit you may by public sermons or other means make these things known for the good and exultation of our holy faith and the edification of the Christian people who have so long been deceived and abused by this woman's works. Thus you may, as befits your dignity, assure that none among the people entrusted to you shall dare to put faith lightly in such errors and dangerous superstitions, especially at the present time when we see many false prophets and sowers of damnable errors arising against our Holy Mother Church in mad audacity and outrageous presumption, who might perhaps infect the Christian people with the virus of false belief, if Jesus Christ in His mercy did not oppose them, and you and His ministers following your profession did not diligently endeavor to repulse and punish the wills and mad audacity of these evil men.


"Given in our town of Rouen, June 28th, 1431


IV


Here follows the recantation of a certain friar who had spoken evil of the judges who tried this woman


"Reverend father in Christ and lord, and you, religious person and master, vicar of the religious person Jean Graverent renowned professor of sacred theology and Inquisitor of Heretical Error in the kingdom of France, especially appointed by the authority of the Holy See, I, Pierre Bosquier friar of the order of Preaching brothers, a miserable sinner and your subject, being desirous as a good and true Catholic to obey in all things my Holy Mother the Church and you the judges in this case, with all humility and devotion, as I confess I am bound to


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do; as from information made at your command you have found me guilty of the following: that I on the last day of May, on the eve of the Feast of Corpus Christi, I said that you and those who judged this woman Jeanne, commonly called The Maid, had done and did wrong; which words, seeing that this Jeanne had appeared before you in judgment and on trial of faith, are evil-sounding and appear to incline somewhat to heretical error; which words, so help me God, since it has been found that I uttered them, were said and uttered by me in thoughtlessness and inadvertence, and in drink. I confess that in this matter I have gravely sinned, and I ask pardon of our Holy Mother Church and of you, my judges and most feared lords, on handed knees and with clasped hands: I ask mercy of the Church, and most humbly submit to your correction, amendment and punishment, humbly praying that it may be without rigor."


V Here follows the sentence of this friar


"In the name of the lord, amen. We, Pierre by divine mercy bishop of Beauvais and brother Jean Le Maistre, appointed in this city and diocese of Rouen by the renowned doctor Jean Graverent, Inquisitor of Heretical Error, himself appointed by apostolic authority to that office in the kingdom of France, to be his deputy and vicar in all that concerns the following case, having seen the facts of the process in matter of faith against the religious person brother Pierre Bosquier, and having considered the information collected at our command upon the charges of which he is accused; and seeing that it was and is perfectly manifest from the information that the accused said and uttered, in a certain place before few witnesses, not long after we had by our final sentence surrendered a certain woman, Jeanne, commonly called The Maid, to the secular


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justice as a heretic, that we did wrong, and that all who judged her also did wrong, by which he seemed to favor this Jeanne and grievously sinned and erred: seeing nevertheless that the said brother Pierre declared his desire, as a good and true Catholic, to obey in all things with humility and devotion our Holy Mother Church and Us, his judges, has willingly submitted to our orders and correction, and has declared himself ready to obey our commands, we, preferring merciful to rigorous justice, and remembering the quality of his person and that these words were spoken in drink, absolve him from the sentences he has incurred thereby, keep him in the fellowship of the Catholics, and restore him to good repute, if need be. Nevertheless we condemn him to imprisonment with bread and water until Easter next in the monastery of the Preaching brothers, in this final sentence pronounced by us in tribunal in these terms, subject to our mercy and moderation. Given at Rouen, August 8th, 1431."


VI


Copy of the letters addressed by the University of Paris to our Holy Father the Pope, to the Emperor, and the College of Cardinals


"We believe, most Holy Father, that vigilant endeavors to prevent the contamination of the Holy Church by the poison of the errors of false prophets and evil men, are the more necessary since the end of the world appears to be at hand. For the doctor of the nations latterly announced these dangerous times to come, when men will no longer hold to sound beliefs: for they will turn away from the truth, and be converted to fables. The gospel also said: 'There will arise false Christs and false prophets, and shall show great signs and wonders, insomuch that, if it were possible, they shall deceive the very elect.' So when we see new prophets arise who boast of receiving


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revelations from God and the blessed of the triumphant land, when we see them announce to men the future and things passing the keenness of human thoughts, daring to accomplish new and unwonted acts, then it is fitting to our pastoral solicitude to set all our energies to prevent them from overwhelming the people, too eager to believe new things, by these strange doctrines, before the spirits which they claim to come from God have been confirmed. It would indeed be easy for these crafty and dangerous sowers of deceitful inventions to infect the Catholic people, if every one, without the approbation and consent of our Holy Mother Church, were free to invent supernatural revelations at his own pleasure, and could usurp the authority of God, and His saints. Therefore, most Holy Father, the watchful diligence lately shown by the reverend father in Christ, the lord bishop of Beauvais and the vicar of the lord Inquisitor of Heretical Error, appointed by the apostolic Holy See to the kingdom of France, for the protection of the Christian religion, seems to us most commendable. For these have been at pains to examine carefully a certain woman, captured in the limits of the diocese of Beauvais, wearing the costume and armor of a man, accused judicially before them of falsely inventing divine revelations, of grave crimes against the orthodox faith: and they showed the whole truth of her actions.


"And after they had acquainted us with the course of the trial and asked us to give them our opinion on certain articles affirmed by her, so that it should not be said that silence has covered up that which was done for the exaltation of the orthodox faith, we resolved to inform your Highness of what we received. As we were instructed by the said lord judges, this woman, calling herself Jeanne the Maid, of her own accord, in her trial, confessed many points which, weighed by the diligent examination of many prelates, maturely considered by the doctors and other men learned in canon and civil law, submitted


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to the decision and judgment of our University, proved she should be held superstitious, a prophetess, a caller up of demons, idolatrous, blasphemous towards God and the Saints, schismatic and in every way erring in the faith of Jesus Christ. Full of affliction and sorrow for the soul of this miserable sinner caught in the pernicious snares of so many crimes, her judges, by frequent warnings and charitable exhortations, set all their efforts to draw her back from the path of her error and to effect her subjugation to the judgment of our Holy Mother Church. But the spirit of wickedness had so completely filled her heart that for a long time she rejected our salutary monitions with a hardened heart, refused to submit to any living man, of whatever dignity, or to the holy Council General, and recognized no other judge than God. At last it came to pass that the persevering labor of the said judges slightly diminished her great presumption: listening to their sound counsels, she denied and verbally abjured her errors, in the presence of a great multitude of people; she subscribed to and signed with her own hand a formula of abjuration and recantation. But hardly had a few days passed, when this wretched woman fell back into her former foolishness, and adhered once more to the errors which she had denied. Therefore the said judges condemned her, in their final decree, as a relapsed heretic, and gave her over to the judgment of the secular power. Now, when this woman learned that the destruction of her body was near, she confessed before all with many lamentations that she had been mocked and deceived by these spirits which she said had appeared visibly before her; and repenting in articulo mortis, she asked pardon of all: and so quitted this life. Wherefore it was clearly recognized by all how dangerous it was, how fearful, to give too light credence to the modern inventions which have for some time past been scattered in this most Christian kingdom, not by this woman


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only, but by many others also; and all the faithful of the Christian religion must be warned by such a sad example not to act so hastily after their own desires, but to listen to the teachings of the Church and the instruction of the prelates rather than the fables of superstitious women. For if we are at last through our own faults arrived at the point where witches falsely prophesying in God's name but without His authority, are better received by the frivolous people than pastors and doctors of the Church to whom Christ formerly said, 'Go ye and teach the nations,' the end is come, religion will perish, faith is in decay, the Church is trampled underfoot and the iniquity of Satan dominates the whole world. Which may Jesus Christ prevent, and under the happy direction of your Beatitude, keep His flock from stain and contamination."


For the College of Cardinals


"Most reverend fathers, we have esteemed it good for the welfare of the faith and the Christian religion to declare to the Holy Father and Sovereign Pontiff what we have heard and known upon the condemnation of the scandals committed in this kingdom by a certain woman; and we wrote to His Holiness in these terms, 'We believe, most Holy Father, that vigilant endeavors, etc.' Since, reverend fathers, Our Lord has placed you at this sublime vantage-point of the Holy See to discover what is happening in the whole world, especially that which concerns the integrity of the faith, we have considered that it was in no way proper for this matter to remain unknown to you, who are in fact the light of the world, from whom no semblance of truth must be hid, so that all loyal Christians may receive salutary instructions from you in matters of faith. May the Most High keep you in happiness to the salvation of His Holy Church!"


Finis


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DRAMATIS PERSONAE by PIERRE CHAMPION Translated by


COLEY TAYLOR and RUTH H. KERR


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[Blank Page]


PARTISANS OF FRANCE


CHARLES VII Charles VII was twenty-six years old at the time Jeanne came to see him. As far as we can learn he was then a prince of sad countenance, extremely pious, and had grown very timid because of the excesses of his partisans who had dishonored his cause by murdering Jean sans Peur [Duke of Burgundy] on the bridge of Montereau. Charles, who had left Paris after the revolution of 1418, lived in Berry and Touraine "immured and shut up in castles, foul places and manors with little rooms," as Jouvenel des Ursins wrote, keeping himself "beyond the river Loire," far from the seat of war and the frontier provinces. Very cautious, rather indolent and secretive, and greatly in need of money, the King was ruled by those who could procure resources for his treasury; he was a very temperate man, but lacking in will-power. It was only in his middle age that he gave himself to pleasure and to women.


In Jeanne d'Arc's time, it is certain that the King was like a sleepwalker. The question "Quare obdormis, domine?" was the refrain of the strong and fine letter of Jouvenel, who had a very especial authority in that time, since he took part in the council of 1430, "where he was often summoned" (Bibl. Nat. ms. fr. 16259)


Charles VII has often been accused of ingratitude to Jeanne, who had him crowned at Reims. He was certainly mistaken in believing in the sincerity of the Burgundian truce, and in not attempting to take Paris in September, 1429. In brief, Charles VII did not see an immediate advantage in prosecuting energetically the conquest of his kingdom. He did not know how to profit by all the consequences of


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the national movement that was aroused by Jeanne's advent. Abandoned in this fashion, the Maid could not but run the risks of every captain of the time, without the benefit of the power of being ransomed from implacable enemies.


But it is not just to pretend that Charles VII did nothing to get her out of the hands of her enemies. In the Morosini correspondence we find, under the date of December 15, 1430, that the news that the Maid had fallen into the hands of the Duke of Burgundy was so widespread that Charles, informed of it, had sent an embassy to Philippe te Bon to say to him that if there was nothing he could offer him to induce him to set her free, then he would exact vengeance for her upon his men that he had captive. Under the date of June 21 , 1431, correspondents of the same banker affirm that "The English wished to burn her (Jeanne) as a heretic, in spite of the Dauphin of France who tried to bring threatening forces against the English." The King felt a "very bitter grief" upon the death of Jeanne, "promising to exact a terrible vengeance upon the English and women of England."


These last words show sufficiently what was felt and said by the good people of France. We know, too, that during the winter of 14301431, La Hire, master of Louviers, made frequent expeditions into the neighborhood of Rouen, and that he worried the English government. In March, 1431, an expedition against Rouen by Dunois was paid for by the King. Another attempt was made against the Chateau d'Eu.


It does not appear that before Charles's entrance into Rouen that anything could have been done towards Jeanne's rehabilitation. This is not surprising if one remembers the unfortunate and decisive influence that Regnault de Chartres, Archbishop of Reims, had upon the King. The Archbishop had the temerity to disavow the Maid publicly. It is also welt to remember that in the address that Jean Jouffroy made before Pope Pius 11 in 1459, he declared that it was in order to manage Charles, Jeanne's admirer, that he had not objected more than he had to his making use of her. Pius II, who had for informers the University men of Bâle and Jean Jouffroy, declared that he had found nothing reprehensible in her save her wearing men's clothing. Charles, he knew, "bore very bitterly the death of the Maid." It is true that Charles considered himself attainted in honor by Jeanne's conviction, and that he ordered the first steps in the revision of her Trial.


Charles VII was represented kneeling, turned toward Jeanne d'Arc


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at the foot of the crucifix and the Virgin, in the first monument raised in Jeanne's memory, on the bridge at Orléans at the end of the Fifteenth Century.


JACQUES D'ARC

Jacques d'Arc, or Jacquot d'Arc, father of the Maid, was born about 1375 at Ceffonds, in the diocese of Troyes, according to the Traité sommaire of Charles du Lys. It was about the time of his marriage that he established himself at Domrémy, for Isabelle Romée was from Vouthon, a village seven kilometers distant. He seems to have enjoyed an honorable position in this countryside, whether he was rich, as some have implied, or not. In 1419 he was the purchaser of the Chateau de I'Ile, with its appurtenances, put up at auction that year. In a document of 1423 he is described as doyen or sergeant of the village; he therefore took rank between the mayor and the provost, and was in charge of collecting the taxes, and exercised functions analogous to those of the garde Champêtre. The same year finds him among the seven notables who responded for the village in the matter of tribute imposed by the damoiseau of Commercy. In 1427 in an important trial held before Robert de Baudricourt, captain of Vaucouleurs, he was again acting as a delegate of his fellow-citizens. We know that he opposed with all his power the mission of his daughter, whom he wished to marry off, without a doubt. However, he went to Reims for the coronation of the King, and the King and the municipality defrayed his expenses and gave him a horse for his return to Domrémy. He was ennobled in December, 1429. Jacques d'Arc died, it is said, of sorrowing over his daughter's end.


ISABELLE D'ARC


Isabelle or Isabeau. d'Arc, mother of the Maid, nee Romée, and called Zabilet in her patois, was born at Vouthon, near Domrémy. We learn from the testimony of Brother Pasquerel at the Rehabilitation proceedings that she returned from the great pilgrimage to Puy en Velay at the time when Jeanne was being conducted to the King, while the expedition to Orléans was being prepared. She was ennobled in the month of December, 1429. After the death of her husband Isabelle left Domrémy, and eventually settled at Orléans, where one finds her established in 1440. We may recall that Jeanne had desired to establish herself in Orléans, for before undertaking the expedition to Reims she


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had taken a long lese on a house in rue des Petits Souliers, in Saint Maclou parish, near the apse of Saint Catherine's church.


"Very ill" upon her arrival, Isabelle, who was then about sixty years old, was cared for at the expense of the city of Orléans, and taken care of by the chambermaid of Messire Bertrand, physician. She lived in the house of Henrier Anquetil and the municipality granted her 48 sous parisis a month "to aid her in living and acquiring her necessities in the said city."


She acted as plaintiff at the time of the Rehabilitation, and lived in the house which her son Pierre occupied in rue des Africains. She was then said to be "decrepit through age," and she asked to be allowed not to attend all the hearings. She appeared before the Archbishop of Reims, not as witness, but always as plaintiff. She died on November 28, 1458, after having testified. In 1428 she founded at Domrémy an obit of two gros barrois for anniversary masses, as did Jacques d'Arc.


ROBERT DE BAUDRICOURT


Robert de Baudricourt was the son of Liébaud, a man of Lorraine, chamberlain of the duc de Bar, and a lady of Champagne, Marguerite d'Aunoy. He was captain of Vaucouleurs at the time of Jeanne d'Arc and later Bailly of Chaumont for King Charles VII - after October 17, 1437.This personage, prudent and rich, was very strong in favor with René d'Anjou, who made him his councillor an chamberlain. He was still living in 1450. A squire, then made a knight, he was lord of the territory of Baudricourt in the Vosges, a fief o the duchy of Lorraine. This family had already served against the English. Jean, Robert's son, was the first son of Lorraine to bear the bâton of marshal of France.


CHARLES II, DUC DE LORRAINE


Charles II had Jeanne brought to Nancy. But he did not receive her with Baudricourt. This prince, who had checked the attempts of Louis d'Orléans to establish himself on the Rhine, as a feudal vassal of the Anglo-Burgundian power. He had married the very pious Margaret of Bavaria, who bore him only daughters. Jeanne's remonstrance was aimed at his passion for Alison May, Of Nancy, his mistress, whose mother sold vegetables in a shop near the ducal palace, and whose father was precentor of the collegiate church of Saint Georges. On January 11, 1425, Charles II ceded her the hose she was living in


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with its furnishings and gold and silver plate. When he died Alison was taken to the square and put to death by the populace.


We know that Charles II listened to Jeanne with astonishment and that he gave her a sum of four francs to pay her for her trip (Durand Laxart's deposition) and that he gave her a black horse (Jean Morel's deposition) on which the Maid returned from Nancy to Vaucouleurs, at the end of February, 1429. The fabulous Chronique de Lorraine, which is entirely untrustworthy, states that Jeanne was armed by Charles II and that she engaged in a tourney in the castle grounds at Nancy.


RENÉ D'ANJOU


René d'Anjou, at that time about twenty years old, was the son-in-law of Charles 11 of Lorraine. He was a son of Louis 11, King of Sicily, duc d'Anjou, Count of Provence, and Yolande of Aragon. He was brought up with the Dauphin Charles and married Isabelle, the heiress of Lorraine, in 1419. He was then a handsome and robust young man. After having seen his county of Anjou pass into the hands of Bedford, he had to endure, much against his will, the seizure of his county of Guise by Jean de Luxembourg (1424). He took part in the siege of Vaudemont and then in the expedition directed against Metz.


We may believe that he was in secret sympathy with Jeanne. But we find that on April 13, 1429, he was still paying homage to the lieutenant of the King of England, and on May 5, the Duke of Lorraine swore fidelity to Bedford in his name. In the same way he was named on a roll of those submissive to the English king, homage that he did not delay in disavowing (August 3). We may believe that he arrived at Reims too late for the coronation sacrament. René figures henceforth among the ranks of the royal army, demanding, after the Maid, to lead the van. Put in possession of the duchy of Bar, and then the duchy of Lorraine, René was taken prisoner at the battle of Bulgneville on June 30, 1431. He was imprisoned at Dijon and was not freed by Philippe le Bon until 1437, Unfortunate in his knightly efforts to keep his kingdom of Naples, King René lived henceforth in Anjou and Provence, an epicurean, a friend of books, poetry and women, composing pastorals and painting pictures in the manner of the Flemish artists.


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JEAN DE NOUVILONPONT


Jean de Nouvilonpont, the present Nouillonpont, on the right bank of the Othain, of the arondissement of Montmédy -- was also called Jean de Metz, squire. It was he who discovered Jeanne, when she was dressed in a poor red dress, and when she was lodged in the house of Henri le Royer. And he said to her: "My friend, what are you doing here? Is the King going to be chased out of his Kingdom and are we going to be English?" And the Maid replied: "I have come here to the King's chamber to speak to Messire Robert de Baudricourt, so that he will take me to the King or have me taken to him. And he hasn't troubled about me or my words. Nevertheless, before mid-Lent, I must go before the King even if I wear my feet off to the knees. For no kings or dukes or king of Scotland's daughter or anybody else in the world can recover the Kingdom of France; there is no aid but myself although I should rather drown myself before the eyes of my poor mother, for it isn't of my estate. But it is necessary that I come, and that I do this, for Our Lord wills that I do it." Then the young squire believed in her, promised to take her to the Dauphin, and gave her his attendants' clothes.


We learn that upon the arrival of the Maid in France, on April 21, Jean de Nouvilonpont received from Guillaume Charrier, receiver-general of the King, 100 livres for his expenses and those of the Maid's company in the town of Chinon. That same month he received 200 livres more for "the Maid's expenses" and 125 livres to procure armor for himself. He was lodged at the house of Jacques Boucher, the treasurer of Orléans, and was ennobled by the King in March, 1444, "in consideration of the laudable and very welcome services which he has rendered us in our wars and elsewhere." Gobert Thibault, equerry of the King and judge of the city of Blois, who testified at the time of the Rehabilitation, numbered him among his friends. Jean de Nouvilonpont was questioned as a witness in the course of the Rehabilitation sessions. He was described as a nobleman living at Vaucouleurs, and about sixty-seven years old.


BERTRAND DE POULENGY


Bertrand de Poulengy was the squire who accompanied Jeanne to Chinon. He was armed at the expense of the King, and was lodged


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at Orléans at the home of Jacques Boucher, and he was a friend of Gobert Thibault, the King's judge at Blois. He was questioned at Toul, at the time of the Rehabilitation, in 1455. He was described as a nobleman, an equerry of the King, and about sixty-eight years old.


As a young man he knew Jeanne's parents, and had spent some time in the house of these "good workers." He said she was a good young woman, "as good as a saint," and very devout; that she tended her father's animals and horses. Bertrand had met Jeanne again at Vaucouleurs and with Jean de Metz procured military equipment for her. Then they took the "road to France" with his servant, Julien, Jean de Honnecourt, servant of Jean de Metz, Colet de Vienne and Richard the archer.


CHARLES D'ORLÉANS


Charles d'Orléans (1394-1465) was the son of Louis d'Orléans and Valentine Visconti. The murder of his father by Jean sans Peur made him the head of the faction for whom the Armagnacs and the national party were fighting (his enemies even said that he wanted to become king and that he had been anointed as such at Saint Denis). Charles spent all his fortune in prosecuting vengeance for his father's murder, fell into the hands of the English-whom the Orleanist and Burgundian factions in turn had called into France-at the disaster of Agincourt in 1415. He was not freed until 1440, and then due to the efforts of the Duchess of Burgundy. From that time on he swore allegiance to Philippe le Bon, and was made a knight of the Toison d'Or. Peaceful by nature, and rather badly off financially, after a vain attempt in Italy to recover Astesan, he lived quietly at Blois for many years, devoting himself to meditation and the composition of melancholy verse.


He was, in short, an epicurean, this prince whom Jeanne saw as a lover of God, and whom she was charged to go to England and set free. But she always saw in him, as did all the good folk of France, the Unfortunate Prince, the head of the most active party up to 1414, the prisoner despoiled of his estates and who could not defend them.


Did Charles of Orléans know all that Jeanne had done for him, or about the delivery of Orléans? It is possible, for many messengers went to him in England to take him money. But it must not be forgotten, however, that Charles was a captive. All that we can learn is that after the Maid's capture a scholar of Pavia, Antonio Astesano, addressed to the duke some Latin verses about Jeanne, developing the terms of a


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letter that Percival de Boulainvillier had sent to the Duke of Milan; but it remains very doubtful whether Charles ever received these verses.


We may imagine however that the duke awaited his deliverance through pacific means. Afterwards he did not speak of her, while the good city of Orléans never ceased honoring her memory in the annual celebration of May 8th (after 1435 the city paid the expense of the celebration). We must confess that the indifference of Charles d'Orléans, who was so careless but so good, is a shocking matter. But we must note however that his giving to Pierre d'Arc the enjoyment of the hereditary title to the Ile des Boeufs on July 29, 1443, was done "in favor and contemplation of his sister, Jeanne the Maid."


CHARLES DE BOURBON


Charles de Bourbon, comte de Clermont, and later duc de Bourbonnais, fought the Battle of the Herrings. He remained at Blois during the siege of Orléans, but he contributed to its defense, figured at the siege of Troyes, was present at the coronation of Reims, where he fulfilled the functions of a peer. He conferred with Jeanne at Senlis. Discontented with the return from Reims, he took part in the battle of Montepilloy, in the attack on Paris, and he was established as the lieutenant-general of Ile de France. But he renounced this and lost the château of Gournay sur Aronde.


As handsome as Absolom, much addicted to adventure and very talkative, he was very vigorously against Philippe le Bon who forced him to submit to his allegiance. We may consider him as suspect, for he took part in the misunderstanding between Charles VII and his son. He died in 1456, in his own territory, "dying sad and very helpless from gout."


JEAN AND PIERRE D'ARC


Jean d'Arc, who fled with his sister to Neufchâteau, accompanied her to France, and was lodged at the house of Jacques Boucher at Orléans. He was ennobled in December, 1429. He pretended to have recognized his sister at Metz in 1436, and claimed for himself gratuities from the city of Orléans. This conduct is very singular under the circumstances, even if he were admitting the common belief in the power Jeanne was said to have to escape the flames. When provost of Vaucouleurs he worked for the rehabilitation of his sister, appeared at Rouen and Paris, and formed a commission to get evidence from their


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native district and produce witnesses. He was Bailly of Vermandois and captain of Chartres and was discharged from the provostship of Vaucouleurs in 1468.


Pierre went to seek his sister "in France," fought along with her at Orléans, lived in the same house with her in that city, accompanied her to Reims, and was ennobled with the rest of the family. He was captured with Jeanne at Compiègne. He declared, as did Jean, that he recognized his sister at Metz in 1436, received many gifts from the King, the city of Orléans, and Duke Charles, among them the Ile aux Boeufs in 1443.


PIERRE DE BOURLEMENT


Pierre de Bourlement, knight, was lord of the southern part of Domrémy. His wife "came from France" (Deposition of Zabillet, wife of Girardin d'Epinal). The Bourlemont family owned the serfs of the Barrois part of Domrémy, about thirty-five families at the end of the Fifteenth Century. They lived at times in a strong house situated facing the village on the island formed at the meeting of the two branches of the Meuse, and they were lords of parts of Greux, Maxey and Bourlemont. The château de Bourlemont dominates the Meuse on the right bank. above Domrémy. We know that Pierre de Bourlement and his wife and daughters never failed to attend the May Day fêtes.


THE DEMOISELLE op LUXEMBOURG


Jeanne, Demoiselle de Luxembourg, was the sister of Count Waleran, and "very ancient" in 1430 according to Monstrelet. She was then at Beaurevoir "where governed Messire Jehan de Luxembourg, her nephew." She had just inherited the seigneuries of her brother as the nearest heir of Philippe de Brabant, and took from that time the titles of Countess of Ligny and of St. Pol. "And because she loved her nephew so dearly" she left him most of her fiefs to the great discontentment of the lord of Enghien, his older brother. This old lady was the sister of the illustrious saint, Pierre de Luxembourg, and was the godmother of Charles VII. She died at Boulogne sur mer on October 13, 1430. Jeanne de Bethune, Viscountess of Meaux, was the wife of Jean de Luxembourg, and was French in sympathy as far as one can learn.


BROTHER RICHARD


Brother Richard was a Friar Minor. He preached at Paris before large gathering of people that the Antichrist was born and that the


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Day of Judgment would fall in 1430. His last preaching was done or April 26, 1429. Shortly afterwards Brother Richard had to flee the city for he was threatened with prosecution by the Faculty of Theology on account of his errors.


We find him at Troyes in July, where he went to meet Jeanne. And Brother Richard preached there that Jeanne knew the secrets of God and those of any saint in Paradise as well, and that she had the power of introducing an army into any city whatever. According to Monstrelet, Brother Richard was again obliged to take to his heels as a follower of the party of Charles VII. He was in Poitiers in March, 1431, a prisoner in the monastery of the Friars Minor of that city. The vicars-general of the bishop and the inquisitor, whom the Court of Parlement joined in this action, forbade him to preach. Brother Richard was a person whose orthodoxy was very questionable, an illuminatus whose bad reputation in University and clerical circles certainly reacted against Jeanne.


JACQUES BOUCHER


Jacques Boucher, Jeanne's host at Orléans, was treasurer and later receiver of the finances of Charles, duc d'Orléans, and was a very devoted servant of that prince. His house was situated at the Renard Gate. On February 10, 1416, Jacques Boucher is cited as clerk of the bailiffs of the Duke; he was given 14 livres to join the men at the council of Orléans at Calais, where the Duke was, in November, 1415. February and September, 1422, he replaced Pierre Renier as treasurer. On December 18, 1422, he obtained a safe-conduct in order to treat for the ransom of the Count of Angoulême. In June, 1439, at Calais Jacques Boucher delivered to Duke Charles 40 ecus d'or "for his pleasure." On January 3, 1444, he was dead and was replaced by Jean Chardon, the Duke's secretary. Jacques Boucher was able, without doubt, to see Charles d'Orléans during his captivity.


REGNAULT DE CHARTRES


Regnault de Chartres was Archbishop of Reims, noted as prelate and diplomat. He was the son of Hector de Chartres, Lord of Onz-en-Bray, grand master of forests and waters in Normandy and Picardy, who was killed at Paris during the rising of 1418, when the Burgundians entered the city. Regnault was at that time thrown into prison. Three brothers of Regnault had already found their deaths at the disaster


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of Agincourt. An immense fortune recompensed these faithful servants in the person of the young prelate.


Regnault's ecclesiastical career was in effect very rapid; he was dean of the cathedral of Beauvais before 1410, and was master of the great schools of the Cholets. He is cited, September 17, 1412, as camérier of the pope, référendaire, and his constant messmate; he intrigued to be elected Bishop of Beauvais. In 1414 Jean XXIII named him Archbishop of Reims in spite of the city and the Chapter. As the Pope's friend he was entrusted at Constance with explaining the flight of the Pope; he went to see Emperor Sigismund in August, 1414, to have him determine the removal of the Council. Jean XXIII sent him as ambassador to Louis II of Anjou as well as to Charles VI. These missions continued to increase Regnault's importance in France, and from '1414 he undertook futile reconciliations between the houses of Orléans and Burgundy. He was created councillor of the King in 1417, and in 1418 we see him at the conference at Montereau representing the King and the Count of Armagnac. In 1417 he went to England; in 1418 to Languedoc, where he raised troops, and in Savoy; in 1420 he went to Scotland to look for aid, and in 1422 to Spain. In 1425 we encounter him at Rome.


This young man had even then a reputation as an expert, a good diplomat, entrusted with the most difficult missions, as if he were an old ambassador. On May 8, 1424, he was created chancellor. The English confiscated his mansion in Paris, and Charles VII remitted to him 4,000 &us d'or so that he could marry one of his nieces to the Sire de Vauvert. The King sold for him the seigneurie of Vierzon.


A prudent man, reasonable to excess, having full confidence in his diplomatic ability, Regnault worked to end the English war by breaking the Anglo-Burgundian alliance. He was a witness of the decisive interview of the King and Jeanne, and was one of her examiners, was sent to Blois to direct the relief of Orléans. Regnault wrote from Troyes to the inhabitants of Reims to dispose them to receive the King with honor. He consecrated the King and recovered his capital city. It seemed at that instant that all would be accomplished for him as well as for Jeanne. The singular question that he asked Jeanne on the road to Crepy-en-Valois shows him already in defiance and from that moment we see Regnault return to his former and great idea of peace through an alliance with Burgundy. The extraordinary letter that he addressed to the people of Reims on the day after Jeanne was made


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prisoner is perhaps that of a politician; but it is also a testimonial to his hardness of heart. Jeanne had become at a day's notice a hindrance, setting at naught the system of truces which stopped short the march of the victorious army and determined the check before Paris. But in any case we cannot see anything there but gloomy maneuvers. It would be more unwise still to regard Guillaume de Flavy, Regnault's half-brother, as a traitor abandoning the Maid before his besieged city. Regnault, after Reims, always represented the cause of peace in the King's council, against Jeanne and those who desired adventures, like the duc d'Alençon To this extent one can say that Regnault was responsible for her loss. It is unfortunate that he could not have read, as we can in the papers of Ghillebert de Lannoy, the Burgundian memoranda advocating the continuance of the Anglo-Burgundian alliance. And we must not forget that Regnault's idea was to be realized five years later in the happy peace of Arras, for which he had worked so hard, and which led to the end of the Hundred Years' War. Regnault de Chartres died full of honors in 1445, after mid-Lent, at Tours, while as an obstinate peacemaker he was treating for peace between France and England.


CHARLES DE BOURBON


Charles de Bourbon (1401-1456) in Jeanne's time Count of Clermont, was the son of Jean I, fourth duke of Bourbon, who was made prisoner at Agincourt and died captive in England in 1433. After the murder of Jean sans Peur at Montereau, Charles fought for the Armagnac party and sent back to Philip of Burgundy his little fiancée Agnes. The Duke of Bourbon received charge of the government of Languedoc and Guyenne, and then of the Dauphiné. He was made lieutenant-general of the King in the Bourbonnais, Auvergne and Le Forez. He attacked La Trémouille strenuously and laid hands on the Chancellor, Gouge de Champaigne, then for a short time reconciled himself with the Duke of Burgundy and asked for his fiancée back again. Handsome, enterprising, very much the adventurer, but decidedly versatile, Charles de Bourbon led an army to Charles VII for the relief of Orléans. He was wounded and vanquished at the Battle of the Herrings. We meet him again at the siege of Troyes, at Reims where he fulfilled the functions of a peer of France and created knights. He was present at the battle of Montepilloy, communicated with Jeanne at Senlis, took part in the attack on Paris and witnessed with great


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dissatisfaction the rapid retreat of Charles VII. He was established as lieutenant-general of Ile de France, but he showed very little character in that office. We know that later, jealous of the influence his brother-in-law, Charles du Maine, had in the government, he took part in the Praguerie and was reconciled with the Burgundians. He died worn out by pleasure, war and gout.


GEORGES, SIRE DU TRÉMOUILLE


Georges, Sire du Trémouille (1382-1446), was brought up at the court of Jean sans Peur of Burgundy whom he accompanied to Paris in 1413. He was named in that same year Grand Chamberlain of Charles VI. Taken prisoner at Agincourt, Georges did not recover his liberty until he paid a high ransom. He married, in 1416, the very rich and old Jeanne de Boulogne, widow of the duc de Berry, who died about 1423. From 1418 on Georges played the rôle of mediator between Charles VI and the princes. On January 21, 1420, Philip of Burgundy commanded the gens de Comples to grant him the Count of Boulogne to pay feudal homage. Sent on a mission close to the Duke of Burgundy in December, 1425, Georges was arrested at La Charité sur Loire by Perrinet Gressart, the captain who vainly fought against Jeanne d'Arc. In February, 1427, Georges took possession of Issodoun, where he captured Pierre de Giac, the favorite and minister of Charles VII. Giac was drowned, and his wife Catherine de l'Ile-Bouchard gave to the audacious Georges Giac's jewels and money, and later herself. Thus in July, 1427, the former chamberlain of Jean sans Peur, Duke of Burgundy, this powerful baron whose family belonged to the Burgundian party, came into power as Charles VII's first minister. Georges, moreover, held in his hand the great military lords of that time, and this fat man was able to advance money to King Charles VII who was always in need of it.


After the winning of Beaugency, Jargeau and Troyes, Georges de la Trémouille took part in the coronation at Reims. We know that after the defeat at Paris Jeanne stayed for some time at Trémouille's castle at Sully sur Loire and that this sojourn was in the nature of a semicaptivity. We know also that in 1433 the Constable du Richemont, who was himself also accused of having forfeited Jeanne's confidence, surprised Trémouille at Chinon. Georges, wounded by a dagger thrust, owed his life to nothing but his fat. He was confirmed in his pensions, but remained alienated from the court and later, at the time of the


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Dauphin Louis's insurrection against his father Charles VII, Trémouille joined the revolutionists. He died at Sully on May 6, 1446.


JEAN, DUC D'ALENÇON


Jean, duc d'Alençon, lost his father at Agincourt in 14T5, and as soon as he could do so, at the age of eighteen, he took up a career in arms, seeking to recover the lands held by the enemy. He married, in 1423, Jeanne, daughter of Charles d'Orléans and Isabelle of France. As lieutenant-general of the Dauphin in Normandy, Jean fought in 1424 the unfortunate battle of Verneuil, where so many lords of France and Scotland were lost. He was taken prisoner by the Duke of Bedford, and held for three years at Crotoy until he paid 200,000 saluts d'or for his ransom. He sold all he possessed to the English, and his fief of Fougères to the Duke of Brittany. When he left prison Jean d' Alençon was "the poorest man in France."


Faithful to France, having nothing to lose and everything to gain, the duc d'Alençon took command of a company of men-at-arms. We know how he led in the Maid's enterprises everywhere, and the confident friendship that Jeanne had for her "beau duc." Jean hoped to lead her sometime to conquer his duchy of Alençon in Normandy. About 1440 Jean d'Alençon who had until then the highest renown for prowess and fidelity, changed all at once. He took part in the revolt of the princes, received the Toison d'Or, had himself dismissed from his office as lieutenant-general, and believed that he was persecuted by the Count of Maine, and said that the King mocked him and did not treat him as he deserved. Jean talked indiscreetly, entered into relations with the English, promised them Granville, gave himself up to drinking, women and magic. On May 3, 1456, Jean testified at Paris at the Rehabilitation proceedings, but he was arrested on the thirty-first by Dunois. He was condemned to death by the peers of France in 1458 as guilty of lèse-majesté, but he was pardoned and freed upon the accession of Louis XI to the throne. d'Alençon was again condemned to death at a second trial in 1474, and this time, too, he was set at liberty. He died in 1476.


THE LORD OF THE BEAR


By the Lord of the Bear is meant the proprietor of the hostelry of that name at the Baudoyer gate in Paris. This Bear Inn is again mentioned in a document of 1465. Anatole France is the first to have


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identified in this "lord" Maître Jacquet Guillaume, a man of the Armagnac party about whom Parisian documents instruct us.


JEAN DE LA BROSSE


Jean de la Brosse, Marshal of France, is sometimes called Marshal de Boussac and Marshal de Saint Sévère, from the names of his fiefs. He commanded the guard of a hundred men who were the special bodyguard of the King. He distinguished himself at Orléans and at Patay, attended the coronation of Charles VII at Reims, and was appointed the King's lieutenant beyond the Seine, Marne and Somme.


On June 5, 1430, Charles VII announced to the people of Reims that he was going to give prompt aid to the town of Compiègne. It was a question of Boussac's coming: he was in command of a column of wagons following the army of Saintrailles an Vendôme which delivered Compiègne on October 25. We find de Boussac later in the army which offered combat to Burgundian troops at Montdidier in November. On February 3, 1432, a troop of six hundred French under his command approached Rouen secretly, planning to take the city by scaling the wall at night. Jean de la Brosse died in 1433.



ÉTIENNE DE VIGNOLLES


Étienne de Vignolles, called La Hire, was a Gascon captain and Bailly of Vermandois. He was born about 1390 and entered the Dauphin's service about 1418 and waged guerilla warfare in the country around Laon and in Vermandois. He was captain of Château Thierry in 1421 and then of Vitry in Champagne in 1422. He was seriously wounded at Saint Riquier and remained lame. He commanded the Lombard knights at Verneuil (August, 1424) and delivered Vendôme from Suffolk, succored Montargis in 1427, surprised Marchenoir but let the English retake Le Mans. He undertook the reprovisioning of Orléans which he entered on October 25, 1428. At the Battle of the Herrings La Hire protected the retreat of the French companies; he encountered the Maid at Blois and reëntered Orléans with her on April 29, 1429. He prosecuted the whole campaign of Beauce and commanded the forces that escorted Jeanne and the King on the March to Reims. Created Bailly of Vermandois, he installed himself at Laon. But we encounter him shortly afterwards in Normandy, of which he was captain-general after the taking of Louviers (1429). He conducted two mysterious enterprises which appear to have had as their object the


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deliverance of Jeanne d'Arc from Rouen. But he was captured by the Burgundians who held him for a ransom of 1,500 réaux d'or and kept him prisoner at Dourdan. In September, 1432, la Hire appeared at Lagny, which was besieged by Bedford, and he ravaged the lands of the Duke of Burgundy around Cambrai the following year. Captain-general of the hither side of the Seine, in December, 1433, he took Ham and Breteuil from the Burgundians and defeated the Earl of Arundel at Gerberoy (1435). In spite of the peace of Arras he continued to wage guerrilla warfare in Artois, around Caux, but he was taken prisoner by the Lord of Offémont at Beauvais (1437). In the service of René d'Anjou, La Hire led the Écorcheurs in Lorraine (1438-1439). He took part in the sieges of Harfleur and Pontoise, and in the battle of Tartas. He died, poor and glorious, at Montauban on January 12, 1443.


JEAN IV, COMTE D'ARMAGNAC


Jean IV, Count of Armagnac (1418-1450) was the son of Constable Bernard VII of Armagnac, a victim of the Paris rebellion. We know that this prince, who had married Isabelle of Navarre, and had sworn fidelity to the King of England in 1421, followed a fluctuating diplomacy of which he was later the victim. In the question of the Schism he supported Benedict XIII and then Clement VIII. Rebellious and submissive in turn, Jean IV was declared, on March 4, 1429, a schismatic, apostate, and placed under interdict. After the renunciation of Clement VIII, Jean asked forgiveness of Martin V. On March 4, 1430, he was relieved of the interdict and reëstablished in his dignities. What motive incited him to consult Jeanne on such a tangled question as that of the legitimacy of the pope? Did he wish to color his change of attitude with a pious pretext?


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PARTISANS OF ENGLAND


PIERRE CAUCHON Pierre Cauchon, born about 1371, in the environs of Reims, studied at the University of Paris. Licentiate in law in 1398, he was among the Parisian students who took part in the vote on withdrawing from obedience to Pope Benedict XIII; in 1403 he was a student in the sixth year in theology. When rector of the University, he sought to obtain a benefice near the Chapter of Reims, although he had already accumulated a canonicate and prebendary in the church of Chalons, and was curé of the parish church of Égriselles in the diocese of Sens. In 1406 he carried the matter of refusing obedience to Benedict XIII before the Parlement of Paris. The following year he was a member of the large embassy to Italy to summon Benedict XIII to renounce the Papacy. In 1408 as a recompense for his services in this matter he obtained the major chaplaincy of Saint Etienne of Toulouse. He was canon of Reims in 1409; bishop's deputy at Reims in 1410, and canon of Beauvais, June 28, 1410 (Register of the cathedral chapter). In 1412 he was among the reformers charged with severity against the excesses of the Armagnacs; in 1413 at Paris he led the rising of the Cabochiens. Banished from the capital in 1414, this revolutionary prelate went, as ambassador of the Duke of Burgundy, to the Council of Constance (1415), where he intervened in favor of Jean Petit, the Burgundian tyrannicide. In 1418, as King's master of petitions, he pleaded to obtain the provostship of Lille, vacant upon the death of Jean de Montreuil. On this occasion the University entreated the Pope to accord him the favor of uniting various incompatible benefices, citing his courage and his works for the good of the Church. He was next archdeacon of Reims, canon of Reims, Chartres, Châlons and Beauvais, chaplain of


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the chapel of the Dukes of Burgundy at Dijon, holder of the benefice of St. Clair in the diocese of Bayeux, all of which brought him about 2,000 livres a year. He obtained in addition the archdeaconate of Chalons. In 1419 Pierre Cauchon was réferendaire of Pope Martin V, whom he helped elect, then conservator of the privileges of the University of Paris.


Elected Bishop of Beauvais on August 21, 1420, on the recommendation of the University of Paris, and ecclesiastical. peer of the kingdom by favor of Philippe le Bon-who came himself to attend his taking of office -- Pierre Cauchon served the English party from that time and followed Henry V to Paris, where he fought the Chapter and Bishop Courtecuisse. In Bedford's confidence, an executor of the will of Charles VI, and councilor of Henry VI with a salary of 1,000 livres, Cauchon was guardian of the privy seal in the absence of the chancellor. He was in charge of important missions.


At Rouen, after 1426, Pierre Cauchon put in accord the Chapter and the Bishop on the subject of the Cardinalate. Expelled from Beauvais with the English (August, 1429), Cauchon fled to Rouen where he had already visited many times: the English indemnified him for the loss of his revenues and put him in charge of special missions in England, Paris, etc. was one of them. Pierre Cauchon did not, however, obtain the archbishopric of Rouen, which he had administered in matters spiritual and temporal, but he became Bishop of Lisieux in 1432. He lived for the most part at Rouen, near the Grand Council, of which he was a member.


As the Queen of England's chancellor in France, Cauchon went to the Council of Bâle as a deputy of England in 1435, and was present at the Council of Arras where he sustained until the end the exclusive right of Henry VI to the crown of France. He was nearly captured at Paris, in the Bastille Saint Antoine, in 1436, when the French reëntered the capital.


In that year Pierre Cauchon received the commission to-call together at Caen the Three Estates and informed them of the King of England's intention to found a university at Caen (Bibl. Nat. ms. fr. 26,061). He fulfilled numerous diplomatic missions relative to the English peace (the conferences of Calais and Gravelines). On July 29, 1437, he gave a receipt to the Treasurer-general of Normandy for 770 livres, the balance of a sum of 2,177 livres for a trip from Paris to Rouen in the King of England's service (Bibl. Nat. ms. fr. 26,063). In 1439 and 1440


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Pierre Cauchon was commissioned with several trips to Calais and to England to treat for peace between the two kingdoms, and concerning the deliverance of the duc d'Orléans.


Pierre Cauchon died suddenly, while he was being shaved, at his fine hotel Saint-Cande, on December 18, 1442, at the height of his honors. He left as heirs his nephew, Jean Bidault, canon of Reims and Lisieux, and Jeanne Bidault, wife of Jean de Rinel, secretary of Henry VI, whose name appears at the end of the Treaty of Troyes. Cauchon's body was carried in state to Lisieux, accompanied by his friend and executor, Nicolas Caval, canon of Rouen. He was interred near the altar in the magnificent chapel of the Virgin which he had rebuilt and decorated at his own expense. It is remarkable to note that the admirable, Frenchman who succeeded him as Bishop of Beauvais, Jean Jouvenel des Ursins, a propos of the fidelity of the people of Beauvais to Charles VII, made but a brief allusion to his predecessor, and did not mention Jeanne's trial in this connection: "And although they held your adversary for Lord, that was because the Lord Bishop was in this foolish error; but always they were your servants at heart. . ."


JEAN LE MAISTRE


Jean Le Maistre, Magistri, Dominican, bachelor of theology from some university other, than Paris, was vicar of the Inquisitor of France in the diocese of Rouen from 1424. In 1431 we find him referred to as prior of the monastery of Preaching Brothers at Rouen, where he enjoyed a reputation as a preacher. He was still living at the time of the first investigations made at Rouen in Jeanne's Rehabilitation (he preached a sermon in January, 1452); but it is probable that he was dead by 1455. At any rate, he was not consulted nor cited in the course of the second Procès.


He has been represented, by later historians, as acting on the threats of Pierre Cauchon, and even as speaking on the irregularities of the Trial. In truth he was less zealous than Jean Graverent, the Grand Inquisitor of France, at that time detained at Coutances by another trial, who ordered La Maistre to join Jeanne's trial, and preached at Paris against remembrance of Jeanne. Le Maistre reserved his opinion on the matter of torture; but he condemned the monk Pierre Bosquier, who spoke critically of Jeanne's sentence. On April 24, 1431, Jean Le Maistre received from the English government a gratuity Of 20 salus d'or "for his pains, labors and diligence in having been present and


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assisted at the trial." He was, perhaps, simply a timid man, but entirely devoted to Cauchon, and but little convinced of the regularity of the Trial (at least according to the testimony of Nicolas de Houppeville). Jean de Maistre certainly hesitated in accepting the conduct of the business and he took the precaution of protecting himself behind the Inquisitor-general. On December 7, 1443, however, he preached to the people on the occasion of the election of Raoul Roussel as Archbishop of Rouen, Roussel who was one of Jeanne's most English-minded judges, and successor to the Cardinal de Luxembourg.


JEAN GRAVERENT


Jean Graverent, Dominican, Grand Inquisitor of France: He was referred to in 1413 as master of theology of Paris, and was present at the Council of Paris where he gave an opinion in favor of appealing to the Pope the question of the propositions of Jean Petit. Inquisitor of the Faith from 1425 on, he succeeded Jacques Suzay, an event which du Boulay cites as of the year 1422 (Hist. Univ. Paris). On August 16, 1429, in the capacity of prior of the Jacobin monastery in Paris, Jean Graverent took the oath of loyalty to the English government before the Parlement of Paris. He directed the trial of Jean Le Couvreur, a burgess of Saint Lô, which was still in process on March 4, 1431; thus it was that this Dominican, whom one may believe very favorable to the Burgundian party, could not take part in . On July 4, 1431, Jean Graverent preached a sermon in Paris, accusing Brother Richard as a "beau père," that is, the mentor, of four suspect female visionaries, among them the Maid.


MARTIN BILLORIN


Martin Billorin, Martinus Billorini, Dominican, professor of theology, was vice-gérant of the Grand Inquisitor. A licentiate in theology in 1416, maître régent at Paris in 1425, at the same time as Jean Beaupère he censured the propositions of Brother Jean Sarrasin, in March, 1430. He is also recorded as teaching in Paris in 1433


PHILIPPE LE BON


Philippe le Bon, son of Jean sans Peur, Grand duc de L'Occident. A magnificent prince, at the same time cunning and chivalrous, reigning over the most fertile and active provinces of the kingdom, and maintaining order there, he recognized Henry VI of England as King


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of France, and brought the body of his father, Jean sans Peur, from Montereau to the Chartreuse at Dijon. French in origin, Flemish at heart, and English by self-interest, Philippe was clever enough not to accept the regency of the kingdom; but he gave his sister to Bedford in marriage. It is well known how Gloucester's aims for the territories of the north turned Philippe to the French party, to which, however, he never adhered completely. Philippe le Bon, wavering and ambitious, was nevertheless the arbiter of the Franco-English struggle and until the Treaty of Arras (1435) he conducted missions, embassies, truces and negotiations which were sometimes favorable to the efforts of the French party, sometimes discouraging, and which led finally to Jeanne's destruction. Philippe acted at that time like an actual King of France, which he always half-way dreamed of being, according to the testimony of Chastellain who has left an unforgettable portrait of him: "His outward bearing only judged him to be emperor."


It was thus that Philippe le Bon could receive the embassy from the besieged Orléannais, and recalled those of his subjects who were participating in the siege of that city, and then turn about and denounce at Reims a conspiracy on behalf of the French. Exhorted by the Maid to make peace, summoned by her to the coronation at Reims, Philippe le Bon concluded a treaty at Compiègne with the Dauphin, a treaty that Jeanne could not have accepted. He continued to levy troops and receive embassies. We know that he was at Compiègne when Jeanne was taken captive, and that he had conversation with her. He announced the news of her capture to the world and received from the English government the account of her trial at Rouen.


It is very singular, after all that, to see that the first witness in Jeanne's favor after her condemnation is to be found in a manuscript which is dedicated to Philippe le Bon in 1440, in Martin Le Franc's _Champion des Dames_. a debate in which the pro and con are set forth.


JEAN DE LUXEMBOURG


Jean de Luxembourg, Lord of Beaurevoir, comte de Ligny, was the younger brother of Cardinal de Luxembourg, Chancellor of England.


Governor of Arras in 1414, Jean de Luxembourg waged a cruel war on the French frontiers; he delivered Senlis in 1418, was wounded at Mons-en-Vimieu (1421), made many expeditions into Picardy and Hainault, was put in charge of the siege of Guise by Bedford, in 1424, led an Anglo-Burgundian expedition against the French forts of the


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Argonne and ravaged the Beauvais district. In August, 1429, at the head of an embassy, he went to Compiègne to bring the King false promises of peace. On February 20, 1430, he evacuated Peronne and formed the advance guard of Philippe le Bon, who was marching on Compiègne.


We know that the Bastard of Wandomme, who took Jeanne prisoner, served in the company of this captain: he turned Jeanne over to Jean de Luxembourg, who gave up the siege of Compiègne (which he had strategically invested with forts) thanks to the vigorous defense of captain Guillaume de Flavy. On October 26, Jean de Luxembourg had to follow the retreat of his troops, mortally wounded, and he left his artillery in de Flavy's hands. Jeanne d'Arc was kept in his castle of Beaurevoir during the month of August.


Required to give her up to the English, Luxembourg at first refused, restrained from this villainy, perhaps, by his aunt. Later on he yielded her on the demands of Pierre Cauchon, and sold her to the English for 10,000 livres; he visited her later in her cell at Rouen.


The paid protector of the towns of Picardy, Jean de Luxembourg tried to shield them from the pillaging of de Flavy and the French captains; he refused to sign the Treaty of Arras in 1435, and continued to ravage, in reprisal, the country about Soissons and Laon (in 1436, La Hire took possession of Soissons). In 1437 we see him in agreement with Charles d'Orléans, who made him send his poursuivant d'armes, Porte Espy, from Blois in Picardy. This rough Burgundian condottiere died at the Château de Guise in 1440. The comte de Ligny is represented in the tournament of the Knights of the Torsion d'or in 1431.


HENRY VI OF ENGLAND


Henry VI, the little son of Henry V and Catherine of France, was born at Windsor on December 6, 1421. In his name the Dukes of Bedford and Gloucester governed in turn during the regency. Proclaimed King of France upon the death of Henry V, he received as "tutor" Richard Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick, in 1428. He was crowned King of England on November 6, 1429, at Westminster. He arrived in France on April 23, 1430, On July 29, he made his entry into Rouen; then at Paris, on December 2, 1430, he made another triumphal entry.


On December 16, Henry was crowned King of France by Cardinal Beaufort at Nôtre Dame. We know how the consecration of Charles


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VII at Reims removed all significance from this ceremony. On the twenty-sixth the infant king left Paris for Rouen, where he resided all through .


Henry VI was unfortunate, especially after the breaking of the Anglo-Burgundian alliance, in the attempts to maintain English rule in France. Peaceful by nature, and not very capable, and an object of suspicion to the English after his marriage to Margaret of Anjou, daughter of King René, Henry was discredited by the influence that the pacific Suffolk had in the government. Henry VI disappeared very mysteriously after having been shut up in the Tower of London (1471).


MARTIN V


Martin V (Othon Colonna) was elected Pope in 1417. He was recognized by almost the entire kingdom. But Jean IV, Count of Armagnac, continued to have negotiations with the anti-pope, Benedict XIII, who on October 27, 1418, retired to the rock of Peñiscola, and who had accorded to the Count and his family a series of spiritual favors. In 1420 the rupture was complete. Upon the death of Benedict XIII in 1424, Jean IV of Armagnac supported Gilles Munoz, who took the title of Clement VIII.


GILLES DE DUREMORT, ABBOT OF FÉCAMP


Gilles de Duremort, Aegidius Duraemortis, Benedictine, most frequently referred to as the abbot of Fécamp, was a Cistercian monk of Beaubec and bachelor formé in theology when he was named abbot of Beaupré in 1403. Licentiate in theology in 1408 he became abbot of Beaubec in 1413; he was named abbot of Fécamp in 1423 and master regent of the Faculty of Theology at Paris, an office he held until about 1429. He became Bishop of Coutances in 1439. Gilles de Duremort died at Rouen on July 29, 1444, and was interred in the church of the priory of Saint Lô, which pertained to his diocese.


Gilles de Duremort was a man of considerable importance, and resided chiefly at Rouen, sometimes in the great hotel de Fécamp, sometimes in his hôtel in the parish of Saint Vincent. He had long enjoyed the entire confidence of the English government when in June, 1421, he was commissioned to intervene in favor of the University of Paris before Henry V. The Duke of Bedford sent him on an embassy in Burgundy to pacify the quarrel between Gloucester and the duc de Brabant in 1424. Gilles de Duremort went many times to England and


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to Burgundy before 1426. In 1427 he went on an embassy to Brittany. Appointed councilor of the English king, with the considerable salary of 2,000 livres, he took the oath of office in 1428. In 1429 Gilles de Duremort went to England on matters of state. In 1431 he was entrusted with the embassy to the Council of Bile. On November 16th of that year, Henry VI ordered the Treasurer-general, Thomas Blount, to pay the wages of ten lancers and thirty mounted archers who escorted the abbots of Fécamp and Mont Saint Michel and the Lord of Saint Pierre, who were summoned to Paris by the king. In 1438 he was designated as the ambassador of Henry VI to treat for peace with the King of France; on July 5, 1439, he was given 300 livres and sent on an embassy to Calais; in 144o he was given 250 livres from the English treasury as a quarter of his salary.


Gilles de Duremort was strongly allied with the Cardinal de Luxembourg, who named him among the executors of his will. He was one of the most assiduous judges at Jeanne's trial, and upon the testimony of Jean Massieu himself, this regent in theology "seemed oftener to act through hatred of Jeanne and through love of the English than through zeal for justice." In the session of May 29th Gilles de Duremort formulated the opinion, or rather, the death sentence, in which the assessors lost no time in joining him, without lengthy explanations.


NICOLAS LE ROUX


Nicolas Le Roux, Ruffi, Benedictine, of a noble family of Rouen, entered the abbey of Jumièges towards 1395. He studied in Paris where he is mentioned as a bachelor of law in 1403; he received his doctorate in law in 1411. Ambassador to the councils of Pisa, Rome and Constance, this "worthy doctor" was recommended by the University to the Pope, to be named abbot of La Croix Saint Leufroy in 1412, and then abbot of Jumièges on September 28, 1418. He is to be found among the regents of the Faculty of Law in Paris in 1419, with Jean Garin and Raoul Roussel. He took the oath of loyalty to Henry V in 1420, and died (June 17, 1431) shortly after Jeanne d'Arc was burned at the stake. He left a personal fortune Of 32,000 livres which his relatives took away from the religious community of Jumièges although this sum had been reserved in accordance with his intentions for the restoration of that celebrated monastery, which had been greatly damaged by the war. Nicolas Le Roux had greatly cherished that abbey and he had attempted to reëstablish there the observance of the rules


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of the order. Le Roux had the reputation of a good administrator and that of a man of good character. He played only a secondary part in Jeanne's trial, and agreed entirely with the University.


PIERRE MIGET


Pierre Miget or Muguet, also named de Glenesiis, Migecii, Benedictine, doctor of theology, was prior of Longueville-Giffard. Licentiate at Paris in 1413, he contested with Jean Bouesgue in 1416, before the Parlement on the subject of the priory of Gournay. Although master regent in theology, Pierre Miget resided constantly at Rouen, in the hôtel de Longueville, situated before the gates of the archbishop's palace. In 1420 he obtained from King Henry V the restitution of the revenues of his benefice and he seems to have been strongly linked to Beaupère who entrusted to him the administration of his diocese in 1434. With this latter, also, he is to be found at Paris among the masters of the Faculty of Theology from 1421 on. There he must have known Erard Emengart, Nicolas Midi, Pierre de Houdenc, Martin Billorin, Pierre de Dyerée, Jean de Troyes, his confrères, who were all assessors at Jeanne's trial.


Pierre Miget was very assiduous in the matter of the Trial, and he was in no way favorable to the accused. (In 1414 at the Council of Paris he showed himself as a zealous Burgundian and sustained the propositions of Jean Petit.) He testified as a witness at the Rehabilitation in 1452: but he declared that he wept at Jeanne's death, of which he had been, however, one of the promoters. He testified that the sentence rendered against the Maid was unjust. In summary, he seriously accused the Bishop of Beauvais, whose accomplice he had been.


RAOUL ROUSSEL


Raoul Roussel, born at Saultchevreuil near Villedieu, licentiate in law in 1416, was dean of the Faculty of Law at Paris from November, 1417, to January, IV% and was elected canon of Rouen in 1420. Treasurer the following year, he was deputized to the regent Bedford to obtain permission to proceed with the election of an archbishop, and he defended with care the canonical prerogatives. In 1424 Raoul Roussel was sent by Bedford on a mission to the Duke of Gloucester to pacify the quarrel between the latter and the duc de Brabant. Roussel fulfilled even military missions at times, since in August, 1428, in the capacity of master of petitions, he gave a receipt to Pierre Surreau, Receiver-general of


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Normandy, for an inspection of fortresses in lower Normandy. On November 7, 1429, his procureur declared to the Chapter of Nôtre Dame of Paris that he accepted the canonicate of the late Jean Gerson, who had remained faithful to the French cause.


Canon of Coutances, vicar-general at Rouen during the archiepiscopal vacancy (1429-1443), councilor master of petitions of the English king with a salary of at first :zoo livres, and later 300, twice ambassador to the French party to treat for peace (1435, 1438), Raoul Roussel received the Duke of York, lieutenant of the King of England in 1441, and addressed compliments to him in the cathedral of Rouen. Roussel succeeded Cardinal de Luxembourg as archbishop of Rouen in 1444. But he took the oath of fealty to Charles VII when that monarch entered Rouen. Roussel died December 31, 1452.


He was one of the most zealous judges at the Trial, and he actively adhered to the opinion of the University and the theologians. He must have been present at the preliminary investigations made for the Rehabilitation. It is well to remember that this strict legalist considered the Trial well conducted and that it was essential not to employ torture, which might bring it into bad repute.


NICOLAS DE VERNERES


Nicolas de Venderès, Lord of Beausseré, was born about 1372. Licentiate in law, he swore fidelity to Henry V and was received as a canon in the church at Rouen in 1422, and was made archdeacon of Eu. Since his name figures in the treaty of agreement of the city of Rouen with Henry V (January 13, 1419), we may believe that he was one of the first Norman ecclesiastics to adhere to the English government. Vicar of Mgr. Louis d'Harcourt, with a salary of 120 livres (1412-1422), vicar sede vacante (1429-1431) he was nearly elected archbishop of Rouen after the death of Louis d'Harcourt (the majority of the canons having voted for him for that office) and he was at one time considered as such. Nicolas de Venderès enjoyed also the office of curé of Gisors. He died at Rouen on the first of August, 1438. For executors of his will he had André Marguerie, Nicolas Caval and Jean Mahommet, priest, all among Jeanne's judges (Arch. de la Seine Inférieure G. 2089). Venderès was very zealous in the affair of the Maid. He was a familiar of Pierre Cauchon. He judged as did his masters in the matter of the twelve articles, and like Raoul Roussel, at the time of Jeanne's relapse, he held that the trial had lasted too long.


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ROBERT LE BARBIER


Robert Le Barbier, Barberii, born about 1388, master of arts, licentiate in both canon and civil law, became canon of Rouen in 1419. He was, on various occasions, a deputy to the provincial Estates. He died at Rouen on August :29, 1444, and was buried in the cathedral. Robert Le Barbier did not like to make a decision and he was especially afraid of compromising himself. He agreed in turn with Erart, Gilles Deschamps, and the Faculty of Theology.


NICOLAS COUPPEQUESNE


Nicolas Couppequesne, of the diocese of Rouen, referred to as master of arts in 1403, bachelor of theology, was rector, for the Chapter, of the great grammar schools of Rouen in 1417. He became canon of the cathedral in 1423 in place of Jean d'Étampes who remained loyal to France, Couppequesne was curé of Hermanville and Saint Pierre d'Yvetot, and became pénitencier of the diocese in the vacancy of the archbishop's See. He died intestate, on July 10, 1442


He was certainly an educated person and very agreeable to the English government, since, on June 5, 1430, when advised of the near approach of the King of England, the Chapter of Rouen decided that Nicolas Couppequesne should welcome the King in case Pierre Maurice were not able to do it. A few months afterwards, when Bedford was received as canon, this worthy grammarian complimented the noble duke, and received for his pains a gallon of wine worth six shillings eight pence. A short while before he was summoned to take part in the Trial, Nicolas Couppequesne published at the library of the Chapter a book entitled Lyrenensis Lugdunensis contra hereses (August 4, 1430). In his judgment Nicolas Couppequesne invoked especially the authority of the University of Paris.


NICOLAS LOISELEUR


Nicolas Loiseleur, Aucupis, was born at Chartres in 1930, and was master of arts at Paris in 1403. He was not admitted as bachelor of theology until October, 1431. Already canon of Chartres in 1421, he was made a canon of Rouen in the place of Martin Ravenot, who remained faithful to France. He fulfilled for the Chapter many delicate missions, going to Paris, for example, to take part in various trials. On July 8, 1429, he was delegated, with Baudribosc and Basset, by the Chapter of


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Rouen to deliberate the matter of an embassy to Rome. He was, without doubt, a man greatly regarded by the English government.


A deputy to the Council of Bâle with Midi and Beaupère, Nicolas Loiseleur went from Rouen to Paris "for the liberties of the Church". He did not attend the Council before 1435, when he sustained with the University men and the clergy of Charles VII the theory of the preeminence of the General Council over the Pope. This was no longer the opinion of the English government nor that of the Chapter of Rouen, which sought to have its ambassador return. He was, seemingly, rather badly received in England, where Henry VI secretly supported Eugene IV. Nicolas Loiseleur was later, in 1438, recalled, on two occasions. In 1439 the Fathers at the Council sent him, as lawyer, to the Diet at Mayence; in 1440 by sentence of the court of Rome, he was deprived of his benefice as canon of Rouen. He lived at Rouen, in the rue de la Chaine (the present-day Place des Carmes) in a house of which his brother-in-law, Pierre Le Marie, and his sister Thomasse were the concièrges. Cauchon was one of his frequent visitors. He died at Bâle, after 1442 and before the Rehabilitation proceedings.


Nicolas Loiseleur, intimate friend of Pierre Cauchon, was equally linked to Nicolas Midi, one of Jeanne's bitterest enemies; he played a perfectly odious rôle in the Trial, that of the false confessor, but completely in accordance with inquisitorial procedure. (Eymeric, Directorium Inquisitorium, Romae, 1585, p. 466, Col. 2, cautela nova) G. Colles assures us, none the less, that he wept while witnessing her death. But this much is certain, that he was not banished from Rouen, as has been written of him, nor was consideration of him subject to any attainder because of any conduct of his during the Trial. He is mentioned as a Norman by Pius 11 (de Gestis Basil concilii, in the Opera omnia, Basileae, 1551).


JEAN D'ESTIVET


Jean d'Estivet, called Benedicité promoter-general of the diocese of Beauvais, was canon of Beauvais and Bayeux. On January 16, 143o, he was named canon of Bayeux and was declared by Pierre Cauchon exempt from the tithes to be levied on the clergy in capacity of student of law at the University of Paris. One finds him later at Rouen, where, on April 25, 1437, he obtained a canonial prebend.


He was a former student of law at the University of Paris, intimately connected with Pierre Cauchon, and like him was a fugitive. He was


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an evil man, even according to Manchon's testimony. He was one of Jeanne's most obstinate judges. He insulted her in prison, treating her as a prostitute. Entirely devoted to the English, Jean d'Estivet insinuated himself into Jeanne's cell, like Loiseleur, pretending to be another prisoner. According to Guillaume Manchon, it was he who sent the Twelve Articles to Paris without completely correcting them. He is the author of the list of charges, read at the session of March 27th, and he ordered Jeanne to be taken back to the castle of Rouen after the abjuration. The recorders, whom he paid for their work, detested him, for he was so overbearing with them. Boisguillaume charged him with great responsibility in his testimony at Jeanne's Rehabilitation: "And believed that God, at the end of his life, punished him, for he ended miserably: he was found dead in a certain sewer outside the Rouen gate." This accident, which happened on October 20, 1438, was fabulously interpreted as punishment for his conduct during the Trial, but Jean d'Estivet was at that time the holder of many benefices.


JEAN DE LA FONTAINE


Jean de La Fontaine, de Fonte, clerk of the diocese of Bayeux described in 1403 as master of arts and student in law, was bachelor and promoter of the University in 1421, and was sent to Bedford and Henry VI in 1422 to obtain confirmation of the privileges of the University; he was licentiate in law at Paris in 1424. In 1427, with Guillaume Colles, Manchon and Robert Guérould, he edited the transaction, made with great care by Pierre Cauchon, between the Archbishop and the Chapter of Rouen. Jean de La Fontaine read, in 1436, Charles VII's confirmation of the privileges of the University.


Commissioned assistant counselor of the Trial, delegated by Pierre Cauchon to question Jeanne, La Fontaine advised her to submit to the Church. Upon the testimony of Manchon and Massieu, which need not be taken too literally, he had to flee Rouen under the threats of Cauchon, who found him too favorable to the accused. We do know also that he was a friend of Nicolas de Houppeville, to whom he passed a letter while the latter was in prison. A Guillaume de La Fontaine was cited as lieutenant-general of Jean Salvain, Bailly of Rouen in 1432. A Jacques de La Fontaine, bachelor of law, secretary and intimate friend of the Pope, was, on March 27, 1429, occupied in the matter of exchanging his canonicate of Beauvais.


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GUILLAUME COLLES


Guillaume Colles, called Boisguillaume, and more often, Boscguillaume, of the Colles de Boisguillaume family, was a recorder of the Trial, and a notary of the ecclesiastical court of Rouen.


As early as 1424 one sees the name of Guillaume Colles as the signature of a writ of excommunication. Boisguillaume is to be found as the notary of the inquisitorial trial of Jean Seguent, held by Jean Graverent between July and November, 1430. In 1421, he is cited as curé of Nôtre Dame de la Ronde (a benefice at the disposition of the King of England), and he signed the act by which the members of the clergy of Rouen, assembled in the archbishop's chapel, declared vacant the benefices of their confrères who lived in the territory loyal to the Dauphin. A further reference is made when the court of Rouen is ordered by Henry VI to make an inventory of his property. He was then cited as cure of Nôtre Dame near Bernay, "under sentence of excommunication, aggravated and further aggravated . . . obstinate and a bad example to our mother the Church." This sale of his property was ordered so that the money might be employed for the benefit of his absolution. Guillaume Colles lived at Rouen in the parish of Saint Nicolas. He was a witness at the Rehabilitation, and on December 18 1456, gave details on the work of the notaries, declaring that the Trial had been made at the expense of the English, recognizing the documents that were presented to him, and revealing the trickeries of Nicolas Loiseleur and Jean d'Estivet.


GUILLAUME MANCHON


Guillaume Manchon, recorder of the Trial, notary of the ecclesiastical court of Rouen, was a canon of Rouen and Evreux, curé of Saint Martin de Vitefleur, and later of Saint Nicolas of Rouen, and almoner of the Confrèrie de la Calende of the Doyenne de la Chrétienté of Rouen.


Court promoter, from 1437 to 1443, he prosecuted the matter in which Jean Massieu was accused of being bad-mannered; in this capacity he visited the abbeys and priories of the diocese in 144o, and is cited as promoter; in 1453 he was in charge of taxes and disbursements. He died on December 9, 1456.


We find that, on September 21, 1440, Guillaume de Croisemare, Bailly of La Madeleine at Rouen, attested to certain of his endowments:


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Guillaume Manchon is cited as notary of the court of Rouen, cure of Vitefleur since October 31, 1436, canon of Evreux, promoter of the ecclesiastical court of Louis de Luxembourg, Archbishop of Rouen, premier chaplain by election and appointment of the brothers of the company of notaries, (September 13, 1440). Among the witnesses cited we encounter Pierre Cochon, cure of Vitefleur, notary of the spiritual court of Rouen. We see the signatures of Manchon and Nicolas Taquel on the original act of foundation, 1436. A commission, given in the month of October, 1445, by the commissioners on the matter of incomes pertaining to churchmen, indicates that he was charged to receive the fruits of the revenues "of curacies situate within the diocese of Rouen, of which the curés are absent and living outside of the jurisdiction of the king." Guillaume Manchon, who delivered into the hands of the judges of the Rehabilitation the minutes of the Trial, testified before them in 1450, 1452 and 1456. He testified with prudence, and accused the Bishop and the English.


JEAN MASSIEU


Jean Massieu, priest, doyen, served as bailiff during the Trial. We see that on October 1', '1430, that the city of Rouen recognized a debt Of .47-los, a sum which he had loaned the city. He is called the dean of la £7.10 s, of Rouen, in 1431; that is, according to Quicherat, syndic of the priests of the division of the diocese calling itself the Doyenné de la Chrétienté On February 3, 1431, Jean Massieu was fined for having received money in the cemetery of the cathedral, exempt from the bishop's jurisdiction, from certain priests and clerks cited by him. Massieu made many trips to Bâle in the matter of the "liberties of the Church"; in 1434 he was sent to locate a malefactor. We discover that action is taken against Thomas Milton, chaplain of the Lord of Fauquemberge and Jean Massieu, former dean of la Chrétienté, for bad manners. Jean Massieu, priest of the parish of Saint-Maclou, is prosecuted later for misconduct. In 1450 he is referred to as a canon, cure of Saint Cande le Vieux, upon the endowment Of 300 livres by Pierre Cauchon, in honor of the Holy Sacrament.


Jean Massieu testified in 1450 and was a witness at the Rehabilitation, on December 17, 1455. He was then said to be about fifty years old. He denounced the hatred the English bore Jeanne, and accused Pierre Cauchon of extreme docility in respect to them.


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VINCENT LE FOURBEUR


Vincent Le Fourbeur of Meaux, was a clerk, bachelor of law, and notary of the University. He is to be found in this same capacity in 1433.


MICHEL HÉBERT


Michel Hébert, master of arts, was a notary of the University. Reference is made of him in this capacity as early as 1422. Guillaume Nicolay is cited, in 1449, as the new scribe elected in the place of the late Hébert, who died on August 6, at the Hôtel Dieu, "of great poverty and sickness."


THE BASTARD OF WANDOMME


One first meets the Bastard of Wandomme in the army of Jean de Luxembourg, who laid siege to Beaumont-en-Argonne, on April 8, 1428. May 74, 1430, the day after capturing Jeanne, he received from the war treasurer of Burgundy the sum Of 277 livres for his reward. He is ranked as a squire, and had under him six men-at-arms and sixty-two yeomen.


Seven years before the capture of Jeanne, the Bastard of Wandomme distinguished himself in a tourney, fighting on foot, with a battle-axe, against a French knight; some time later in a real battle he was gravely wounded by the splintering of a lance and was left with a crippled arm.


NICOLAS DE MAILLY


Nicolas, or rather, Colard de Mailly, Lord of Blangy-sur-Somme and of Conty, belonged to the party of the Duke of Burgundy. Captain of Saint-Riquier, which had just been surrendered by the Lord of Offémont, (1422) he received from the English king, in 1423, on the recommendation of the Duke of Bedford, the seigneurie of Rambures, seized by d'Harcourt's men; then after the siege of Guise (1424) he received likewise the lands of Jean de Coucy. In January 1426, Colard de Mailly was created Bailly of Vermandois. That same year he took part in the siege of Mortagne in the retinue of the Earl of Salisbury and later in the Argonne campaign. On July 10, 1428, he wrote to the inhabitants of Reims to urge their obedience to the Burgundians. Colard never changed, as has been written of him, to loyalty to the King of France. He retired to Chauny, in the fortress of Charles d'Orléans, from which, in 1431, the inhabitants routed him. We find later mention of him as ambassador of the King of England at the Council of Arras; in


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1441 he was among Jean de Luxembourg's men at the siege of Pontoise. He died about 1457.


JEAN DE PRESSY


Jean de Pressy, from Artois, knight: We find mention of a Jean de Pressy, King's treasurer of war in 141o among those who assisted the Duke of Burgundy in 1419 in his counsel at Arras "on the matter of the treaty with England." In 1425 he is called counselor of the grand Council of the King, and rendered his expenses for the trip he had made to Champagne to raise aid and to pay the men-at-arms employed at the siege of Moynier. On this mission he must have met Pierre Cauchon who was also employed in it. Jean de Pressy is mentioned among the lords of the entourage of little Henry VI during the sojourn he made at the castle of Rouen from July 29, 1430, to November 20, 1431, and he figures among the members of the Grand Council. He accompanied the young prince to Paris